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Upconversion refers to non-linear optical processes that convert two or more low-energy pump photons to a higher-energy output photon. After being recognized in the mid-1960s, upconversion has attracted significant research interest for its applications in optical devices such as infrared quantum counter detectors and compact solid-state lasers. Over the(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of pulmonary cryptococcosis patients in China, with analysis of immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects. We performed a retrospective review of 76 patients diagnosed with tissue-confirmed pulmonary cryptococcosis at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Shanghai, China) during a(More)
Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at(More)
Ultrasmall inorganic oxide nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)), a new and huge family of luminescent bioprobes, remain nearly untouched. Currently it is a challenge to synthesize biocompatible ultrasmall oxide bioprobes. Herein, we report a new inorganic oxide bioprobe based on sub-5 nm amine-functionalized tetragonal ZrO(2)-Ln(3+)(More)
Trivalent lanthanide (Ln(3+))-doped luminescent inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), characterized by long-lived luminescence, large Stokes and/or anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands and high photochemical stability, are considered to be promising candidates as luminescent bioprobes in biomedicine and biotechnology. In this feature article, we provide a(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted much interest for the treatment of cancer due to the increased incidence of multidrug resistance and systemic toxicity in conventional chemotherapy. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is one of main classes of photosensitizers for PDT and possesses optimal photophysical and photochemical properties. A higher specificity can ideally(More)
Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles possess superior physicochemical features such as long-lived luminescence, large antenna-generated Stokes or anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, high resistance to photobleaching and low toxicity, and thus are regarded as a new generation of luminescent bioprobes as compared to conventional molecular probes(More)