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The recycling endosome (RE) is an organelle in the endocytic pathway where plasma membranes (proteins and lipids) internalized by endocytosis are processed back to the cell surface for reuse. Endocytic recycling is the primary way for the cell to maintain constituents of the plasma membrane (Griffiths et al., 1989), i.e., to maintain the abundance of(More)
A mutation in the huntingtin (Htt) gene produces mutant Htt and Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder. HD patients have oxidative damage in the brain, but the causes are unclear. Compared with controls, we found brain levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated in human HD postmortem(More)
Oxidative stress contributes to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). However, the origins of oxidative stress in HD remain unclear. Studies in HD transgenic models suggest involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, which would lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Impaired mitochondria complexes occur in late stages of HD but(More)
The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are important signaling components required for human blastocyst implantation and the progression of pregnancy. Growing evidence indicates that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis can regulate trophoblast function and uterine spiral artery remodeling, which plays a fundamental role in placentation and fetal outcome. The orphan(More)
Huntingtin is ubiquitously expressed and enriched in the brain. Deletion of the huntingtin gene in mice is lethal during early embryonic development. The function of huntingtin is, however, not clear. Here, we report that huntingtin is important for the function of Rab11, a critical GTPase in regulating membrane traffic from recycling endosomes to the(More)
Neurotrophin-6 (NT-6) was identified in the teleost fish Xiphophorus as a new member of the neurotrophin gene family. NT-6 binds specifically the glycosaminoglycan heparin. In this study NT-6 was expressed in a stably transfected mammalian cell line, and in insect cells via a recombinant baculovirus. It was purified to homogeneity and characterized by MS(More)
Huntingtin has an expanded polyglutamine tract in patients with Huntington's disease. Huntingtin localizes to intracellular and plasma membranes but the function of huntingtin at membranes is unknown. Previously we reported that exogenously expressed huntingtin bound pure phospholipids using protein-lipid overlays. Here we show that endogenous huntingtin(More)
OBJECTIVE Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease that is primarily driven by effector T cells, particularly Th17 cells, which are mainly contained within CD4+CD161+ T cells. Thus, we aimed to explore whether the frequencies of circulating IL-17-producing CD4+CD161+ T cells and CD4+CD161+ T cells were correlated with RA disease activity. (More)
Xueyi Li,1* Antonio Valencia,1* Ellen Sapp,1 Nicholas Masso,1 Jonathan Alexander,1 Patrick Reeves,1 Kimberly B. Kegel,1 Neil Aronin,2 and Marian DiFiglia1 1Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, and 2Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology,(More)
T cell activation and secretion of cytokines from activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in culture have traditionally been measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation for assessment of cell proliferation. However, this method has many disadvantages that limit its usage in analyzing antigen-specific T responses, because of the low specific(More)