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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its pathogenicity is not fully understood, but innate immune evasion is likely a key factor. Strategies to circumvent the initiation and effector phases of anti-viral innate immunity are well known; less well known is whether EV71 evades the signal transduction(More)
UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) belong to a family of ligands for NKG2D activating receptor of human natural killer (NK) cells. We previously reported that RAET1E2, a soluble isoform of the RAET1E (ULBP4), inhibits NKG2D-mediated NK cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether ULBP4 could be recognized by gammadeltaT cells via TCRgammadelta. Here we show(More)
UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) belong to a family of ligands for NKG2D activating receptor of human natural killer (NK) cells. We previously reported that RAET1E2, a soluble isoform of the RAET1E (ULBP4), inhibits NKG2D-mediated NK cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether ULBP4 could be recognized by T cells via TCR . Here we show that immobilized(More)
HCV infection induces autophagy, but how this occurs is unclear. Here, we report the induction of autophagy by the structural HCV core protein and subsequent endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in Huh7 hepatoma cells. During ER stress, both the EIF2AK3 and ATF6 pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were activated by HCV core protein. Then, these(More)
UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs, also termed as retinoic acid early transcripts, encoded by RAET1 genes), a family of ligands for NKG2D in humans, are frequently expressed by tumor cells and mediate cytotoxicities of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) alphabeta T cells to tumor cells. ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, and RAET1L link to membrane through(More)
UL16-binding proteins [ULBPs, also termed as retinoic acid early transcripts (RAET1) molecules] are frequently expressed by malignant transformed cells and stimulate anti-tumor immune responses mediated by NKG2D-positive NK cells, CD8(+) alphabeta T cells and gammadelta T cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we identified four novel functional splice(More)
Adoptive cell-transfer therapy (ACT) has been reported to suppress growing tumors and to overcome tumor escape in animal models. As a candidate ACT effector, γ9δ2T cells can be activated and expanded in vitro and in vivo and display strong antitumor activity against colorectal, lung, prostate, ovarian and renal cell carcinomas. However, it is difficult to(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71(More)
The structural basis that determines the specificity of gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) recognition remains undefined. Our previous data show that the complementary determining region of human TCRdelta (CDR3delta) is critical to ligand binding. Here we used linear and configurational approaches to examine the roles of V, N-D-N, or J regions in(More)
The immune protection initiated by γδ T cells plays an important role in mycobacterial infection. The γδ T cells activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived nonpeptidic, phosphorylated biometabolites (phosphoantigens) provide only partial immune protection against mycobacterium, while evidence has suggested that protein antigen-activated γδ T cells(More)