We have recently shown that the platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) is activated by von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding to its platelet receptor, glycoprotein Ib-IX (GPIb-IX), via the protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway. Here we show that GPIb-IX-mediated activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) is inhibited by dominant negative mutants of Raf-1 and… (More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Its pathogenicity is not fully understood, but innate immune evasion is likely a key factor. Strategies to circumvent the initiation and effector phases of anti-viral innate immunity are well known; less well known is whether EV71 evades the signal transduction… (More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES The unique immunological functions of γδ T lymphocytes to contribute immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis attracted interest of researchers. However, little is known about the specificity of γδ Τ cell in tuberculosis patients and the lack of exact tuberculosis antigen recognized by γδ T cells limited its application. The… (More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71… (More)
BACKGROUND Phosphoantigen was originally identified as the main γδ TCR-recognized antigen that could activate γδ T cells to promote immune protection against mycobacterial infection. However, new evidence shows that the γδ T cells activated by phosphoantigen can only provide partial immune protection against mycobacterial infection. In contrast, whole… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003231.].
The γδ T cell receptor (TCR) differs from immunoglobulin and αβ TCR in its overall binding mode. In human, genes δ1, δ2, and δ3 are used for TCRδ chains. Previously, we have studied antigen binding determinants of TCRδ2 derived from dominant γδ T cells residing in peripheral blood. In this study we have investigated the critical determinants for antigen… (More)
and D), indicating that the cytoplasmic domains of b 3 and b 1 can directly interact with Ga 13 and that GTP enhances the interaction. The Ga 13-b 3 interaction was enhanced in platelets adherent to fibrinogen, and by thrombin, which stimulates GTP binding to Ga 13 via GPCR (Fig. 2E). Hence, the interaction is regulated by both integrin occupancy and GPCR… (More)