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The formation and development of bulblets are crucial to the Lilium genus since these processes are closely related to carbohydrate metabolism, especially to starch and sucrose metabolism. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of both processes. To gain insight into carbohydrate-related genes involved in bulblet formation and(More)
C2c2, the effector of type VI CRISPR-Cas systems, has two RNase activities-one for cutting its RNA target and the other for processing the CRISPR RNA (crRNA). Here, we report the structures of Leptotrichia shahii C2c2 in its crRNA-free and crRNA-bound states. While C2c2 has a bilobed structure reminiscent of all other Class 2 effectors, it also exhibits(More)
Lilium is an important commercial market flower bulb. qRT-PCR is an extremely important technique to track gene expression levels. The requirement of suitable reference genes for normalization has become increasingly significant and exigent. The expression of internal control genes in living organisms varies considerably under different experimental(More)
Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio(More)
C2c1 is a type V-B CRISPR-Cas system dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease. Here, we report the crystal structure of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris C2c1 in complex with a chimeric single-molecule guide RNA (sgRNA). AacC2c1 exhibits a bi-lobed architecture consisting of a REC and NUC lobe. The sgRNA scaffold forms a tetra-helical structure, distinct from(More)
Elevated levels of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the brains being a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been believed to play a critical role in the cognitive dysfunction that occurs in AD. Recent evidence suggests that Abeta induces neuronal apoptosis in the brain and in primary neuronal cultures. In this study, we investigated the effects of beta-asarone,(More)
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with the loss of neuronal cells, and it has been suggested that apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal loss in AD patients. Recent evidence suggests that amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) induces neuronal apoptosis in the brain and in primary neuronal cultures. In this study, we(More)
We determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two luminous beetles (Arthropoda, Insecta, Coleoptera), Rhagophthalmus lufengensis from Yunnan, China and Rhagophthalmus ohbai from Yaeyama Island, Japan. We identified all the 37 mtDNA genes of R. lufengensis (15,982 bp) and the 34 genes of R. ohbai (15,704 bp). R. lufengensis and R. ohbai genomes(More)
Elevated levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brains being a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease have been believed to play a critical role in the cognitive dysfunction that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence suggests that Aβ induces neuronal apoptosis in the brain and in primary neuronal cultures. In this study, we investigated the effects of puerarin,(More)
Over the past decade, the safety of nanomaterials has attracted attention due to their rapid development. The relevant health threat of these materials remains largely unknown, particularly at environmentally or biologically relevant ultra-trace concentrations. To address this, we first found that graphene oxide (GO, a carbon nanomaterial that receives(More)