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With an increasing world population and a gradual decline in the amount of arable land, food security remains a global challenge. Continued increases in rice yield will be required to break through the barriers to grain output. In order to transition from hybrid rice to super-hybrid rice, breeding demands cannot be addressed through traditional heterosis.(More)
The standard binary enzymatic assembly, which operates by inserting one DNA fragment into a plasmid, has a higher assembly success rate than the polynary enzymatic assembly, which inserts two or more fragments into the plasmid. However, it often leaves a nucleotide scar at the junction site. When a large DNA molecule is assembled stepwise into a backbone(More)
Osteoporosis develops due to impaired bone formation and/or excessive bone resorption. Although the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis has been extensively developed, alternative treatments are still needed. Here, we showed that oridonin (ORI), a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, can suppress osteoclastogenesis and enhance osteogenesis.(More)
High incidence of osteoporotic fractures emphasizes the necessity of developing effective measures to promote osteogenesis. In our study, we investigated a possible role of MAPK-ERK signaling in the TGF-β-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Our results indicated that TGF-β activated the MAPK-ERK pathway and inhibited osteogenesis in mesenchymal(More)
Inflammatory cytokines play critical roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural active substances can serve as alternative therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. Sanguinarine, an alkaloid isolated from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, is known to have anti-inflammatory(More)
Tillage intensities largely affect soil compaction dynamics in agro-ecosystems. However, the contribution of tillage intensities on compaction changes in underground peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields has not been quantified. We thus aimed to better understand the role of soil tillage intensities in mitigation of compaction stress for peanuts. Using three(More)
Panicle traits are among the most important agronomic characters which directly relate to yield in rice. Grain number (GN), panicle length (PL), primary branch number (PBN), and secondary branch number (SBN) are the major components of rice panicle structure, and are all controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In our research, four advanced backcross(More)
CONTEXT Although it is recognized that thrombin plays a key role in airway remodeling during chronic asthma. In a previous study, we have proved that thrombin promotes airway remodeling via PAR-1 in OVA-allergic rats, but little is known about intracellular signaling pathway involved in the event. OBJECTIVE In this study, we intend to explore the impact(More)
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a critical element for both innate and adaptive immunity. The quick responses of mature iNKT cells to TCR stimulation require activation of several different signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in mature iNKT cell biology remain incompletely understood. To address this issue, single(More)
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