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The ability of HIV-1 to evolve resistance to antiretroviral drugs leads to treatment failure. By nucleotide sequencing of HIV-1 subtype B isolates, amino acids responsible for drug resistance have been identified. Less information is available, however, on the extent and distribution of these amino acids in HIV-1 nonsubtype B viruses circulating mainly in(More)
We report the effects of hemicellulase-treated Agaricus blazei (ABH) on the maturation of bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). ABH activated immature BMDCs, inducing up-regulation of surface molecules, such as CD40, CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class I antigens, as well as inducing allogeneic T-cell proliferation and T helper type 1(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells recognize tumor cells and virus-infected cells and attack without being sensitized to antigens. The development of the antitumor/antivirus activities of NK cells is controlled by multiple mechanisms such as direct cytotoxic activity against target cells, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, secretion of Th1-type(More)
Natural killer (NK) activity of immune cells plays a central role in host defense against cancer and virus-infected cells. Natural cytotoxic activity of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells was assessed by a Calcein-AM release assay in 89 subjects. In the present study, we here demonstrated that NK activities of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from(More)
A suggestive case of metastatic disease from breast cancer is reported. The HER-2-positive tumor was refractory to several agents, including anti-HER-2 therapy, trastuzumab, and lapatinib. After re-induction of trastuzumab in combination with activated natural killer (NK) cell injection therapy, tumor markers decreased, and finally a synergistic effect of(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) can be differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of interferon-α (IFNα) and granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in vitro and are known as IFN-DCs. Circulating blood CD56+ cells expressing high levels of CD14, HLA-DR and CD86 have been shown to spontaneously differentiate into DC-like cells in vitro after(More)
Current therapeutic modalities for ovarian cancer such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have been reported to yield only marginal success in improving survival rates of patients and have associated adverse effects. We report here a case of recurrent stage IV ovarian cancer, treated with cell-based autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) along(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, with almost 46 million people infected globally. HIV-1 subtype C accounts for 55% of these infections. In Zambia, the majority of HIV-1 infections are subtype C. However, to its north most countries have non-subtype C as the most predominant HIV-1 subtype(More)
Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer is evolving with the development of novel technologies for generating a large number of activated killer cells such as natural killer (NK) cells, γδ T cells, and αβ T cells. We have recently established large-scale culture methods to generate activated NK cells from human peripheral blood, and demonstrated that expanded NK(More)
The adoptive transfer of highly cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells is an emerging tool for cancer immunotherapy. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has recently been identified as one of the critical factors for the clinical efficacy of anticancer antibodies, in which NK cells are the major effectors of ADCC. NK cells were expanded from PBMC(More)