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Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in Xenopus are specified through the inheritance of germ plasm. During gastrulation, PGCs remain totipotent while surrounding cells in the vegetal mass become committed to endoderm through the action of the vegetal localized maternal transcription factor VegT. We find that although PGCs contain maternal VegT RNA, they do not(More)
Injury to the CNS leads to formation of scar tissue, which is important in sealing the lesion and inhibiting axon regeneration. The fibrotic scar that comprises a dense extracellular matrix is thought to originate from meningeal cells surrounding the CNS. However, using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that perivascular collagen1α1 cells are the main source(More)
The translational repressor Nanos is expressed in the germline and stem cell populations of jellyfish as well as humans. Surprisingly, we observed that unlike other mRNAs, synthetic nanos1 RNA translates very poorly if at all after injection into Xenopus oocytes. The current model of simple sequestration of nanos1 within germinal granules is insufficient to(More)
Nanos family members have been shown to act as translational repressors in the Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans germline, but direct evidence is missing for a similar function in vertebrates. Using a tethered function assay, we show that Xenopus Nanos1 is a translational repressor and that association with the RNA is required for this repression. We(More)
Lack of axon growth ability in the central nervous system poses a major barrier to achieving functional connectivity after injury. Thus, a non-transgenic regenerative approach to reinnervating targets has important implications in clinical and research settings. Previous studies using knockout (KO) mice have demonstrated long-distance axon regeneration.(More)
PURPOSE We investigated the role of retrograde signaling in the optic nerve on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) electrical responsiveness in the mouse model. METHODS Electrical response of RGC was measured by pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in 43 C57BL/6J mice 4 to 6 months old under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. PERGs were recorded before and at different(More)
Optic nerve crush injury, as a model to study central nervous system (CNS) injury, is widely used to assess potential therapeutic strategies, aimed at promoting axon regeneration and neuronal survival. Traditional methods to evaluate optic nerve regeneration rely on histological sectioning. However, tissue sectioning results in inevitable loss of(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions as a master sensor of nutrients and energy, and controls protein translation and cell growth. Deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in adult CNS neurons promotes regeneration of injured axons in an mTOR-dependent manner. However, others have demonstrated mTOR-independent axon regeneration in(More)
Injured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons do not regenerate spontaneously, causing loss of vision in glaucoma and after trauma. Recent studies have identified several strategies that induce long distance regeneration in the optic nerve. Thus, a pressing question now is whether regenerating RGC axons can find their appropriate targets. Traditional methods of(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor central to axon regrowth with an enigmatic ability to act in different subcellular regions independently of its transcriptional roles. However, its roles in mature CNS neurons remain unclear. Here, we show that along with nuclear translocation, STAT3 translocates to(More)