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Insufficient pancreatic β-cell mass or function results in diabetes mellitus. While significant progress has been made in regulating insulin secretion from β-cells in diabetic patients, no pharmacological agents have been described that increase β-cell replication in humans. Here we report aminopyrazine compounds that stimulate robust β-cell proliferation(More)
A large number of amino acids other than the canonical amino acids can now be easily incorporated in vivo into proteins at genetically encoded positions. The technology requires an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is added to the media while a TAG amber or frame shift codon specifies the incorporation(More)
In vivo incorporation of isotopically labeled unnatural amino acids into large proteins drastically reduces the complexity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Incorporation is accomplished by coexpressing an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid added to the media and the protein of interest with a TAG(More)
A novel series of benzoazepin-2-ones were designed and synthesized targeting the PIF pocket of AGC protein kinases, among which a series of thioether-linked benzoazepin-2-ones were discovered to bind to the PIF pocket of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), and to displace the PIF peptide with an EC(50) values in the lower micromolar range. The(More)
Pyrroline-carboxy-lysine (Pcl) is a demethylated form of pyrrolysine that is generated by the pyrrolysine biosynthetic enzymes when the growth media is supplemented with D-ornithine. Pcl is readily incorporated by the unmodified pyrrolysyl-tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair into proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and in mammalian cells. Here, we describe a(More)
D-ornithine has previously been suggested to enhance the expression of pyrrolysine-containing proteins. We unexpectedly discovered that uptake of D-ornithine results in the insertion of a new amino acid, pyrroline-carboxy-lysine (Pcl) instead of the anticipated pyrrolysine (Pyl). Our feeding and biochemical studies point to specific roles of the poorly(More)
Sticky residue: Pyrroline-carboxy-lysine (Pcl) can be readily incorporated into proteins expressed in E. coli and mammalian cells by using the pyrrolysyl tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair. Pcl can be used as a single amino acid purification tag and can be site-specifically modified with functional probes during the elution process.
Z-selectivity was observed for iodohydroxylation of Se-substituted allenes with I2 and H2O, which is opposite to that of 1,2-allenyl sulfoxides. With n-hexane as the co-solvent Z-iodoamination leading to N-(3-organoseleno-2-iodo-2(Z)-propenyl)acetamide was observed. A brief rational for the stereoselectivity of this reaction is provided.
It was observed that the halohydroxylation of 1,2-allenyl sulfides or selenides with Br2 (CuBr2 or NBS) or I2 and water demonstrated a fairly good regioselectivity (i.e., the C=C bond that is remote from the S or Se atom was halohydroxylated with the halogen atom connecting to the middle carbon atom and the hydroxyl group connecting to the non-S terminal(More)