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Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepadnaviruses exists as an episomal minichromosome in the nucleus of infected hepatocyte and serves as the transcriptional template for viral mRNA synthesis. Elimination of cccDNA is the prerequisite for either a therapeutic cure or immunological resolution of HBV infection. Although accumulating evidence suggests(More)
This letter presents a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomanufacturing method combining the tip scanning with the high-precision stage movement to fabricate nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom by continuous scanning with a fixed scan size. Different structures can be obtained according to the matching relation of the tip feeding(More)
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitors or pegylated alpha-interferon has led to a significant retardation in HBV-related disease progression and reduction in mortality related to chronic hepatitis B associated liver decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, chronic HBV infection remains(More)
The single scratching test of polymer polycarbonate (PC) sample surface using an atomic force microscope (AFM) diamond tip for fabricating ripple patterns has been studied with the focus on the evaluation of the effect of the tip scratching angle on the pattern formation. The experimental results indicated that the different oriented ripples can be easily(More)
Torque Teno virus (TTV) is a nonenveloped human DNA virus that was isolated from the serum of a patient with transfusion-transmitted hepatitis with unknown etiology in 1997 (Nishizawa et al., 1997). TTV is the first human virus with a single-stranded circular DNA genome to be identified, and is recently classified as the Alphatorquevirus genus of the(More)
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