Learn More
UNLABELLED Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an approved medication for chronic hepatitis B therapy. Besides acting as an immunomodulator, IFN-α elicits a pleiotropic antiviral state in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocytes, but whether or not IFN-α impedes the late steps of the HBV life cycle, such as HBV secretion, remains elusive. Here we report that(More)
Human coronavirus NL63 (NL63), a member of the group I coronaviruses, may cause acute respiratory diseases in young children and immunocompromised adults. Like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), NL63 also employs the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor for cellular entry. To identify residues in the spike protein of(More)
IFNs are a family of cytokines that are essential for the antiviral response in vertebrates. Not surprisingly, viruses have adapted to encode virulence factors to cope with the IFN response. Intriguingly, we show here that all three types of interferons, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IFN-λ, efficiently promote infection by a human coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, one of the(More)
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepadnaviruses exists as an episomal minichromosome in the nucleus of infected hepatocyte and serves as the transcriptional template for viral mRNA synthesis. Elimination of cccDNA is the prerequisite for either a therapeutic cure or immunological resolution of HBV infection. Although accumulating evidence suggests(More)
Host cellular endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidases I and II are essential for the maturation of viral glycosylated envelope proteins that use the calnexin mediated folding pathway. Inhibition of these glycan processing enzymes leads to the misfolding and degradation of these viral glycoproteins and subsequent reduction in virion secretion. We previously(More)
Chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is due to the failure of a host to mount a sufficient immune response to clear the virus. The aim of this study was to identify small-molecular agonists of the pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated innate immune response to control HBV infection. To achieve this goal, a coupled mouse macrophage and(More)
Virus infection of host cells is sensed by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and induces production of type I interferons (IFNs) and other inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines orchestrate the elimination of the viruses but are occasionally detrimental to the hosts. The outcomes and pathogenesis of viral infection are largely determined by the(More)
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a serious public health problem leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is currently treated with either pegylated alpha interferon (pegIFN-α) or one of the five nucleos(t)ide analogue viral DNA polymerase inhibitors. However, neither pegIFN-α nor nucleos(t)ide analogues are capable of reliably curing(More)
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with the viral DNA polymerase inhibitors or pegylated alpha-interferon has led to a significant retardation in HBV-related disease progression and reduction in mortality related to chronic hepatitis B associated liver decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, chronic HBV infection remains(More)
The spike (S) protein of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) mediates both cell attachment by binding to its receptor hACE2 and membrane fusion during virus entry. We have previously identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and residues important for RBD-hACE2 association. Here, we further characterized the S protein by investigating the roles of the(More)