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In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal(More)
PURPOSE Microglia activation plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of central nervous system (CNS) insult. The aim of the present work was to investigate the activation of microglia and involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in microglia activation after 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure. (More)
The issue of possible neurobiological effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is highly controversial. To determine whether electromagnetic field exposure could act as an environmental stimulus capable of producing stress responses, we employed the hippocampus, a sensitive target of electromagnetic radiation, to assess the changes in its(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis has been implicated in many optic neuropathies. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is important in maintaining neuronal survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The purpose of this study is to explore whether IGF-1 can protect RGCs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and to determine the(More)
There is strong evidence that beta-amyloid (Abeta) causes oxidative stress and induces mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) has multiple roles in the maintenance of mtDNA. To study the protective roles of Tfam against amyloid neurotoxicity, we established SH-SY5Y cell lines stably(More)
Milk fat globule factor-E8 (MFG-E8) has been regarded as a key factor involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We induced a lentivirus into the microglial cells for the augmentation or abrogation of MFG-E8 expression in mouse microglial cells, and investigated phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine tagged human red blood cells (hRBCs) in co-cultures.(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between microglial proinflammatory and electromagnetic radiation and unveil the role of microglia in microwave radiation induced central nervous system injury. METHODS N9 microglia cells cultured in vitro were exposed to microwave at 90 mW/cm2. Cell flow cytometry was used to observe the expression of CD11b at(More)
Hyperthyroidism is prevalent during pregnancy, but little is known about the effects of excess thyroid hormone on the development of embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Previous studies indicate that STAT3 plays a crucial role in determining NSC fate during neurodevelopment. In this study, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the role of catecholamine(CA) in the mechanism of bio-effect of electromagnetic irradiation. METHODS The contents of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in serum and hippocampus of rats at 0, 8, 24, 48 hours after electromagnetic irradiation were measured by using high performance liquid chromatography with(More)
Microglial cells, which are immunocompetent cells, are involved in all diseases of the central nervous system. During their activation in various diseases, a variety of soluble factors are released. In the present study, the correlation between cytokine levels and microglial cell migration in the course of retinal degeneration of Royal College of Surgeons(More)