Learn More
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. Based on a survey that(More)
A new class of hole-transporting materials (HTM) containing tetraphenylmethane (TPM) core have been developed. After thermal, charge carrier mobility, and contact angle tests, it was found that TPA-TPM (TPA: arylamine derivates side group) showed higher glass-transition temperature and larger water-contact angle than spiro-OMeTAD with comparable hole(More)
We study the growth effects of regional trade agreements (RTAs), taking into account the WTO participation of RTA members. We lay out a model of economic growth in which trade liberalization through the WTO or RTAs allows for easier access to intermediate goods produced by other members. The model predicts a stronger growth effect of RTAs for non-WTO(More)
We study the relationship between participation in free trade agreements (FTAs) and the sustainability of democracy. Our model shows that FTAs can critically reduce the incentive of authoritarian groups to seek power by destroying protectionist rents, thus making democracies last longer. This gives governments in unstable democracies an extra motive to form(More)
There is almost no support for the proposition that capital is attracted to low wages from firm-level studies. We examine the location choices of 2,884 firms investing in China between 1993 and 1996 to offer two main contributions. First, we find that the location of labor-intensive activities is highly elastic to provincial wage differences. Generally,(More)
This paper presents an ANN observer that estimates the position of permanent magnet synchronous motor by a single shunt. The observer with artificial neural network is based on a nonlinear transformation of mathematical model of PMSM in a stationary alpha - beta reference frame. By designing appropriate weight value and back propagate learning rule with(More)
China exhibits above average savings and below average consumption as shares of total economic activity when compared with other countries. At the same time, to create more balanced growth at home and rebalance key bilateral trade and capital flow relationships, China’s leadership is trying to increase domestic demand. To complement studies that investigate(More)
Former studies, the methods for estimating the ventilation time are all empirical in construction schedule simulation. However, in many real cases of construction schedule, the many factors have impact on the ventilation time. Therefore, in this paper the 3D unsteady quasi-single phase models are proposed to optimize the ventilation time with different(More)
As China becomes a major world exporter, there has been a rapid increase in its product sophistication measured by increased similarity between the product structure of its exports and those of the developed countries as well as a rapid increase in the volume of its exports. This has generated anxiety in developed countries as the competitive pressure may(More)