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Intrinsic disorder refers to segments or to whole proteins that fail to self-fold into fixed 3D structure, with such disorder sometimes existing in the native state. Here we report data on the relationships among intrinsic disorder, sequence complexity as measured by Shannon's entropy, and amino acid composition. Intrinsic disorder identified in protein(More)
Many mammalian viruses have acquired genes from their hosts during their evolution. The rationale for these acquisitions is usually quite clear: the captured genes are subverted to provide a selective advantage to the virus. Here we describe the opposite situation, where a viral gene has been sequestered to serve an important function in the physiology of a(More)
The vanilloid receptor (VR1) protein functions both as a receptor for capsaicin and a transducer of noxious thermal stimuli. To determine the expression and targetting of this protein, we have generated antisera against both the amino and carboxy termini of VR1. Within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of rats, VR1-immunoreactivity (VR1-ir) was(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using(More)
The human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene is localized to chromosome 5p15.3 by in situ hybridization and PCR amplification of rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA. Analysis of a 40-bp repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the message revealed variable numbers of the repeat ranging from 3 to 11 copies. These results will aid in the investigation of a role for(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the(More)
The recently cloned NPR1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is a key regulator of acquired resistance responses. Upon induction, NPR1 expression is elevated and the NPR1 protein is activated, in turn inducing expression of a battery of downstream pathogenesis-related genes. In this study, we found that NPR1 confers resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae(More)
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important in many types of mesenchymal cell. Here we identify a new PDGF, PDGF-C, which binds to and activates the PDGF alpha-receptor. PDGF-C is activated by proteolysis and induces proliferation of fibroblasts when overexpressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridization analysis in the murine embryonic kidney(More)
The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is thought to drive daily rhythms of behavior by secreting factors that act locally within the hypothalamus. In a systematic screen, we identified transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) as a likely SCN inhibitor of locomotion. TGF-alpha is expressed rhythmically in the SCN, and when infused into(More)
The hypothesis of this study is that the mechanical integrity of the collagen network in bone deteriorates with age, and such adverse changes correlate with the decreased toughness of aged bone. To test the hypothesis, 30 human cadaveric femurs from donors ranging from 19 to 89 years of age were tested to determine the age-related changes in the mechanical(More)