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We examined the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 25 heterosexual, monogamous couples (25 men, 25 women), followed up over an average of 7.5 months. A total of 53 heterosexual transmission events were observed among 16 couples (14 male-to-female and 39 female-to male). Sexual transmission involved 13 different oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV(More)
Nicotianamine (NA) is an important divalent metal chelator and the main precursor of phytosiderophores. NA is synthesized from S-adenosylmethionine in a process catalyzed by nicotianamine synthase (NAS). In this study, a set of structural and phylogenetic analyses have been applied to identify the maize NAS genes based on the maize genome sequence release.(More)
The retinas of mice null for the neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor (Nrl-/-) contain no rods but are populated instead with photoreceptors that on ultrastructural, histochemical, and molecular criteria appear cone like. To characterize these photoreceptors functionally, responses of single photoreceptors of Nrl-/- mice were recorded with(More)
The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential(More)
PURPOSE Arrestins are a superfamily of regulatory proteins that down-regulate activated and phosphorylated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Cone arrestin (CAR) is expressed in cone photoreceptors and pinealocytes and may contribute to the shutoff mechanisms associtated with high acuity color vision. To initiate a study of CAR's function in cone(More)
Cone arrestin (CAR) is a novel member of the arrestin superfamily expressed in retinal cone photoreceptors and the pineal gland. To understand the regulatory mechanisms controlling its cone- and pineal-specific expression, and to facilitate further functional studies using gene knockout approaches, we characterized the genomic organization and the(More)
PURPOSE The light-dependent redistribution of phototransduction components in photoreceptor cells plays a role in light adaptation. Upon illumination, rod and cone arrestins (Arr and cArr) translocate from the inner to the outer segments while transducin subunits (Talpha, Tbetagamma) translocate in the opposite direction. The underlying translocation(More)
PURPOSE This study was initiated to investigate the molecular mechanisms of activation of expression of the human cone arrestin (hCAR) gene by retinoic acid (RA), in an in vitro model of retinoblastoma cells. METHODS Human retinoblastoma Weri-Rb-1 or Y79 cell lines were cultured in the absence or presence of RA analogues with transcription or translation(More)
PURPOSE To understand the genetic regulatory pathways underlying the retinoic acid (RA) induction of cone arrestin, gene array technology and other molecular tools were used to profile global gene expression changes in human retinoblastoma cells. METHODS Weri-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells were cultured in the absence or presence of RA for various periods. DNA(More)