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We examined the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 25 heterosexual, monogamous couples (25 men, 25 women), followed up over an average of 7.5 months. A total of 53 heterosexual transmission events were observed among 16 couples (14 male-to-female and 39 female-to male). Sexual transmission involved 13 different oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV(More)
Cone arrestin (CAR) is a novel member of the arrestin superfamily expressed in retinal cone photoreceptors and the pineal gland. To understand the regulatory mechanisms controlling its cone- and pineal-specific expression, and to facilitate further functional studies using gene knockout approaches, we characterized the genomic organization and the(More)
The retinas of mice null for the neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor (Nrl-/-) contain no rods but are populated instead with photoreceptors that on ultrastructural, histochemical, and molecular criteria appear cone like. To characterize these photoreceptors functionally, responses of single photoreceptors of Nrl-/- mice were recorded with(More)
The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential(More)
PURPOSE Arrestins are a superfamily of regulatory proteins that down-regulate activated and phosphorylated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Cone arrestin (CAR) is expressed in cone photoreceptors and pinealocytes and may contribute to the shutoff mechanisms associtated with high acuity color vision. To initiate a study of CAR's function in cone(More)
OBJECTIVE This report surveys and evaluates the scientific research on evidence-based healthcare design and extracts its implications for designing better and safer hospitals. BACKGROUND It builds on a literature review conducted by researchers in 2004. METHODS Research teams conducted a new and more exhaustive search for rigorous empirical studies that(More)
PURPOSE This study was initiated to investigate the molecular mechanisms of activation of expression of the human cone arrestin (hCAR) gene by retinoic acid (RA), in an in vitro model of retinoblastoma cells. METHODS Human retinoblastoma Weri-Rb-1 or Y79 cell lines were cultured in the absence or presence of RA analogues with transcription or translation(More)
PURPOSE To establish lines of transgenic mice that express Cre-recombinase in M- or S-cone photoreceptors for generating cone photoreceptor-specific (conditional) mutants. METHODS Five kilobases of 5' upstream sequence of the mouse red-green (M) opsin gene or 0.5 kb of the mouse blue (S) opsin gene was cloned into a Cre-expression plasmid. Transgenic mice(More)
PURPOSE The light-dependent redistribution of phototransduction components in photoreceptor cells plays a role in light adaptation. Upon illumination, rod and cone arrestins (Arr and cArr) translocate from the inner to the outer segments while transducin subunits (Talpha, Tbetagamma) translocate in the opposite direction. The underlying translocation(More)
Defects in the gene encoding carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in either mouse or human lead to multiple endocrine disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Recent studies on Cpe-/- mice indicated neurological deficits in these animals. As a model system to study the potential role of CPE in neurophysiology, we carried out electroretinography (ERG) and retinal(More)