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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nucleotide noncoding RNAs produced by Dicer-catalyzed excision from stem-loop precursors. Many plant miRNAs play critical roles in development, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress responses, and pathogen responses via interactions with specific target mRNAs. miRNAs are not the only Dicer-derived small RNAs produced(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA gene products about 22 nt long that are processed by Dicer from precursors with a characteristic hairpin secondary structure. Guidelines are presented for the identification and annotation of new miRNAs from diverse organisms, particularly so that miRNAs can be reliably distinguished from other RNAs such as small(More)
BACKGROUND In metazoans, microRNAs, or miRNAs, constitute a growing family of small regulatory RNAs that are usually 19-25 nucleotides in length. They are processed from longer precursor RNAs that fold into stem-loop structures by the ribonuclease Dicer and are thought to regulate gene expression by base pairing with RNAs of protein-coding genes. In(More)
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) show a high degree of sequence complementarity to, and are believed to guide the cleavage of, their target messenger RNAs. Here, I show that miRNA172, which can base-pair with the messenger RNA of a floral homeotic gene, APETALA2, regulates APETALA2 expression primarily through translational inhibition. Elevated miRNA172(More)
Methylation on the base or the ribose is prevalent in eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Artificially introduced 2'-O-methyl groups in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can stabilize siRNAs in serum without affecting their activities in RNA interference in mammalian cells. Here, we show that(More)
Small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides (nt), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), act as guide RNAs to silence target-gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. In addition to a Dicer homolog, DCL1, the biogenesis of miRNAs in Arabidopsis requires another protein, HEN1. miRNAs are reduced in abundance and increased in size in hen1(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in numerous developmental and metabolic processes in plants and animals. The steady-state levels of miRNAs need to be properly controlled to ensure normal development. Whereas the framework of miRNA biogenesis is established, factors involved in miRNA degradation remain unknown. Here, we show that a family of(More)
In animals, double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) and single-stranded microRNA (miRNA) regulate gene expression by targeting homologous mRNA for cleavage or by interfering with their translation, respectively. siRNAs are processed from injected or transgene-derived, long, perfect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), while miRNAs are processed from short,(More)
Translation inhibition is a major but poorly understood mode of action of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants and animals. In particular, the subcellular location where this process takes place is unknown. Here, we show that the translation inhibition, but not the mRNA cleavage activity, of Arabidopsis miRNAs requires ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1). AMP1 encodes(More)
The seed maturation program only occurs during late embryogenesis, and repression of the program is pivotal for seedling development. However, the mechanism through which this repression is achieved in vegetative tissues is poorly understood. Here we report a microRNA (miRNA)-mediated repression mechanism operating in leaves. To understand the repression of(More)