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Global energy balance in mammals is controlled by the actions of circulating hormones that coordinate fuel production and utilization in metabolically active tissues. Bone-derived osteocalcin, in its undercarboxylated, hormonal form, regulates fat deposition and is a potent insulin secretagogue. Here, we show that insulin receptor (IR) signaling in(More)
Skeletal development and turnover occur in close spatial and temporal association with angiogenesis. Osteoblasts are ideally situated in bone to sense oxygen tension and respond to hypoxia by activating the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF alpha) pathway. Here we provide evidence that HIF alpha promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis by elevating VEGF(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) pathway is the central regulator of adaptive responses to low oxygen availability and is required for normal skeletal development. Here, we demonstrate that the HIF-1alpha pathway is activated during bone repair and can be manipulated genetically and pharmacologically to improve skeletal healing. Mice lacking(More)
The cellular receptor for poliovirus CD155 (or PVR) is the founding member of a new class of membrane-associated immunoglobulin-like proteins, which include the mouse tumor-associated antigen E4 (Tage4) and three proteins termed "nectins." Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we have discovered that the cytoplasmic domain of CD155 associates strongly and(More)
Growth hormone (GH) affects bone size and mass in part through stimulating insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) production in liver and bone. Whether GH acts independent of IGF-1 in bone remains unclear. To define the mode of GH action in bone, we have used a Cre/loxP system in which the type 1 IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been disrupted specifically in(More)
GH promotes longitudinal growth and regulates multiple cellular functions in humans and animals. GH signals by binding to GH receptor (GHR) to activate the tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), thereby regulating expression of genes including IGF-I. GH exerts(More)
Grain number, panicle seed setting rate, panicle number and grain weight are the most important components of rice grain yield. To date, several genes related to grain weight, grain number and panicle number have been described in rice. However, no genes regulating the panicle seed setting rate have been functionally characterized. Here we show that the(More)
Morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients are drastically increased when primary tumor cells are able to spread to distant sites and proliferate to become secondary lesions. Effective treatment of metastatic disease has been limited; therefore, an increased molecular understanding to identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets is needed. Breast(More)
A bench-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) bioreactor with steady denitrifying phosphorus removal performance was tested to determine the influence of influent C/N ratio (SCOD/TN) and C/P ratio (SCOD/TP) on biological nutrient removal for treating synthetic brewage wastewater; meanwhile, the spatial profiles of DO, pH and ORP sensors in such systems were(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factors have recently been identified as critical regulators of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. Mice overexpressing HIFalpha subunits in osteoblasts produce abundant VEGF and develop extremely dense, highly vascularized long bones. In this study, we investigated the individual contributions of Hif-1alpha and Hif-2alpha in angiogenesis(More)