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The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is a classic problem of combinatorial optimization and has applications in planning, scheduling, and searching in many scientific and engineering fields. Genetic algorithms (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) have been successfully used in solving TSPs and many associated applications in the last two decades.(More)
BACKGROUND Discoidin domain receptors 1 (DDR1), a subtype of DDRs, has been reported as a critical modulator of cellular morphogenesis, differentiation, migration and invasion. METHODS AND RESULTS In this study, we investigated the expression of DDR1 and its clinical association in Chinese patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Across a(More)
Early diagnosis and treatment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still a challenge worldwide. The poor survival of PDAC patients mainly due to early metastasis when first diagnosed and lack of prognostic biomarker. Ribosomal protein L15 (RPL15), an RNA-binding protein, is a component of ribosomal 60S subunit. It was reported that RPL15 is(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of non-protein-coding transcripts that have been implicated in cancer biogenesis and prognosis. By repurposing microarray probes, we herein analysed the lncRNA expression profiles in two public PDAC microarray(More)
Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein associated with vascular morphogenesis and remodeling, is commonly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and correlates with tumor progression. However, its expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in pancreatic ductal(More)