Learn More
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP/MPP+ model is often used to investigate the signaling mechanisms of dopamine (DA) degeneration, both in vivo and in vitro. The identification of specific genetic and(More)
B lymphocytes augment the immune response by producing antibodies and activating T cells by antigen presentation. Recent studies have highlighted a specific and functionally significant B-cell subset that could downregulate excessive immune and inflammatory responses through a vast array of inhibitory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming(More)
Follicular helper CD4(+) T (TFH) cells play a fundamental role in humoral immunity deriving from their ability to provide help for germinal center (GC) formation, B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, and antibody production in secondary lymphoid tissues. TFH cells can be identified by a combination of markers, including the chemokine(More)
Macrophages are important immune cells of the innate immune system that are involved in organ-specific homeostasis and contribute to both pathology and resolution of diseases including infections, cancer, obesity, atherosclerosis, and autoimmune disorders. Multiple lines of evidence point to macrophages as a remarkably heterogeneous cell type. Different(More)
OBJECTIVE This study is aimed at examining the potential roles of circulating memory T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS The numbers of different subsets of circulating memory Tfh cells in 25 patients with relapsed MS before and after treatment as well as 14 healthy controls (HC) were examined by flow(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine the potential role of memory T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in patients with neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO/NMOSD). METHODS The percentages of different subsets of circulating memory Tfh cells in 25 NMO/NMOSD patients before and after treatment as well as in 17 healthy controls were(More)
M yasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junctions, which is strongly associated with thymoma. Usually, the target of the autoimmune attack is the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the postsynaptic skeletal muscle endplate. However, non-AChR components, such as muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK)(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IEFND) by skin biopsy, evaluate the effect of age, anatomical sites, and ethnic origin on IEFND and develop a reference range of IENFD at the distal leg of healthy human. METHODS Seventy skin biopsy specimens from surgical procedures involving 70 patients were analyzed. Specimens were fixed(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an autoimmune attack on the components of the myelin sheath and axons. The etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, but it is commonly acknowledged that the development of MS probably results from the interaction of environmental factors in(More)
This study analyzed the populations of three different subsets of regulatory B cells (Bregs) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and explored the relationship between the changes in these subsets of Bregs and the severity of NMOSD. A total of 22 patients with relapsed NMOSDs(More)