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The WNT/β-CATENIN signaling has been demonstrated to play critical roles in mouse tooth development, but little is known about the status of these molecules in human embryonic tooth. In this study, expression patterns of WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components, including WNT ligands (WNT3, WNT5A), receptors (FZD4, FZD6, LRP5), transducers (β-CATENIN),(More)
The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 plays a crucial regulatory role in the development of sinoatrial node (SAN) by repressing the expression of Nkx2.5, as demonstrated by failed differentiation of SAN in Shox2 null mice. The SHOX (short stature homeobox) gene family consists of two closely related members, SHOX and SHOX2 in humans, but a SHOX(More)
The demand for orthopedic and dental implants will continue to grow, and for these applications, titanium and its alloys have been used extensively. While these implants have achieved high success rates, two major complications may be encountered: the lack of bone tissue integration and implant-centered infection. The surface of the implant, through its(More)
Embryonic development is a tightly regulated process, and many families of genes functions to provide a regulatory genetic network to achieve such a program. The homeobox genes are an extensive family that encodes transcription factors with a characteristic 60-amino acid homeodomain. Mutations in these genes or in the encoded proteins might result in(More)
Our current knowledge on tooth development derives primarily from studies in mice. Very little is known about gene expression and function during human odontogenesis. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the development of multiple organs in mice, including the tooth. However, if SHH signaling molecules are expressed(More)
While numerous genes that play important regulatory roles during tooth development in mice have been identified, little is known about gene expression profile and their function during human odontogenesis. To unveil expression profile of odontogenic genes in humans, we conducted genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray assays to analyze(More)
While correlation of developmental stage with embryonic age of the human primary dentition has been well documented, the available information regarding the differentiation timing of the primary teeth was largely based on the observation of initial mineralization and varies significantly. In this study, we aimed to document precise differentiation timing of(More)
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) widely exists in edible and medicinal plants. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA on the protection from apoptosis by methylmercury (MeHg) in PC12 cells. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry detection. Caspase-3 activity was measured by confocal microscopy. Intracellular GSH levels were(More)
Mammalian tooth development is regulated by paracrine signal molecules of several conserved family interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. The expression patterns and regulative roles of FGF signaling have been extensively studied in the mouse odontogenesis; however, that is not well known in human tooth development. In order to unveil the molecular(More)
The developing murine tooth has been used as an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanism of organ development and regeneration. While the expression patterns of numerous regulatory genes have been examined and their roles have begun to be revealed in the developing murine tooth, little is known about gene expression and function in human(More)