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Morphine is a potent agonist of μ-opioid receptor and is widely used to relieve severe pain, including cancer pain. Some chemokines, for example, CX3CL1 and CCL2, participate in the regulation of opioid santinociception. In our previous study, we found overexpression of chemokine CXCL10/CXCR3 in spinal cord participated in the development of cancer-induced(More)
Descending nociceptive modulation from the supraspinal structures plays an important role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a critical component of descending nociceptive facilitation circuitry, but so far the mechanisms are poorly known. In this study, we investigated the role of RVM glial activation in the(More)
UNLABELLED Patients with chronic pain experience spontaneous or ongoing pain as well as enhanced sensitivity to evoked stimuli. Spontaneous or ongoing pain is rarely evaluated in preclinical studies. In fact, it remains controversial whether ongoing or spontaneous pain even develops in mice after tissue or nerve injury. This study tested a hypothesis that(More)
UNLABELLED Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is associated with overactivity of spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Spinal NOS and NMDA receptors could act in a concerted manner to excite each other in nociceptive signaling. Among the 3 major NOS isoforms, neuronal NOS (nNOS) has the most functional relationship(More)
Synaptic plasticity is fundamental to spinal sensitivity of bone cancer pain. Here, we have shown that excitatory synaptogenesis contributes to bone cancer pain. New synapse formation requires neurite outgrowth and an interaction between axons and dendrites, accompanied by the appositional organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations. We(More)
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in(More)
The mechanism behind itching is not well understood. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of spinal cord extracts provides a quick modality for evaluating the specific metabolic activity of α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus mice. In the current study, four groups of young adult male C57Bl/6 mice were investigated; one group treated with(More)
Morphine is viewed as one of the classical treatments for intractable pain, but its role is limited by side effects, including analgesic tolerance. A few chemokines have been reported to be engaged in the mechanisms of morphine tolerance. However, the exact roles of CXC chemokine 11 (CXCL11) in chronic morphine tolerance remain unknown. In this study,(More)
Pain is one of the most challenging and stressful conditions to patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their clinicians. Patients with SCD start experiencing pain as early as 3 months old and continue having it throughout their lives. Although many aspects of the disease are well understood, little progress has been made in understanding and treating(More)
Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) remains one of the most intractable clinical problems due to poor understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate the decline of inhibitory interneurons, especially GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord, can evoke generation of chronic pain. It has also been reported that neuronal MHC-I expression(More)