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Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major(More)
The epidemiology of whooping cough (pertussis) remains enigmatic. A leading cause of infant mortality globally, its resurgence in several developed nations--despite the availability and use of vaccines for many decades--has caused alarm. We combined data from a singular natural experiment and a detailed contact network study to show that age-specific(More)
The RNA-binding proteins LIN28A and LIN28B have diverse functions in embryonic stem cells, cellular reprogramming, growth, and oncogenesis. Many of these effects occur via direct inhibition of Let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), although Let-7-independent effects have been surmised. We report that intestine targeted expression of LIN28B causes intestinal hypertrophy,(More)
In spite of the importance of plasmids in bacterial adaptation, we have a poor understanding of their dynamics. It is not known if or how plasmids persist in and spread through (invade) a bacterial population when there is no selection for plasmid-encoded traits. Moreover, the differences in dynamics between spatially structured and mixed populations are(More)
Tigecycline is one of the few therapeutic options for treating infections caused by some multi-drug resistant pathogens, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae has been discovered recently in China. From 2009 to 2013, nine tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were identified in our hospital. Six of nine strains(More)
Ion-chromatography of lyophilized cobra (Naja naja atra) venom on SP-Sephadex C-50 yielded 14 fractions, of which 7, 8, 9, and 10 possessed neurotoxic actions and 11, 12, 13, and 14 had cytotoxic activities. Chromatography of fraction 14 on SP-Sephadex C-25 gave cytotoxin-14. It was homogeneous on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with m = 7448 Da. It was(More)
Glioma remains one of the most lethal human tumors in spite of the progress in radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgical techniques. Cell differentiation agent-2 (CDA-2) is an extraction from healthy human urine consisting of primary organic acids and peptides, and it has been demonstrated to inhibit growth and induce differentiation in glioma and other cell(More)
OBJECTIVES The formation of biofilm around implants, which is induced by immediate bacterial colonization after installation, is the primary cause of post-operation infection. Initial surface modification is usually required to incorporate antibacterial agents on titanium (Ti) surfaces to inhibit biofilm formation. However, simple and effective priming(More)
BACKGROUND Temperature change between neighboring days (TCN), an indicator to reflect sudden temperature variation, has been identified as an independent risk factor for human health by small-scale studies. However, the adverse impact of TCN on mortality and effect modification are insufficiently studied, and a larger multi-cities analysis at national level(More)
Plasmids are important vehicles for horizontal gene transfer and rapid adaptation in bacteria, including the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Conjugative transfer of a plasmid from a plasmid-bearing to a plasmid-free bacterial cell requires contact and attachment of the cells followed by plasmid DNA transfer prior to detachment. We introduce a system(More)