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We developed a light-switchable transgene system based on a synthetic, genetically encoded light-switchable transactivator. The transactivator binds promoters upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiates transcription of target transgenes in mammalian cells and in mice. This transgene system provides a robust and convenient way to spatiotemporally control(More)
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most devastating pathogen of soybean worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are known to play important role in plant stress response. However, there are few reports profiling the miRNA expression patterns during pathogen stress. We sequenced four small RNA libraries(More)
Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated endogenously or in response to environmental stress have long been implicated in tissue injury in the context of a variety of disease states. ROS/RNS can cause cell death by nonphysiological (necrotic) or regulated pathways (apoptotic). The mechanisms by which ROS/RNS cause or regulate apoptosis(More)
Cigarette smoke-induced cell death contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, though the relative roles of apoptosis and autophagy remain unclear. The inducible stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress. We examined the relationships between these processes in human bronchial(More)
BACKGROUND Although the training of surgical residents is often considered in national policy addressing complications and safety, the influence of resident intraoperative involvement on surgical outcomes has not been well studied. STUDY DESIGN We identified 607,683 surgical cases from 234 hospitals from the 2006 to 2009 American College of Surgeons(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO), confers potent antiinflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that CO derived from HO-1 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 5, and 9 signaling, but not TLR3-dependent signaling, in macrophages. Ligand-mediated receptor trafficking to lipid rafts represents an early event in(More)
We recently reported that the blood concentrations of Tacrolimus (FK506) in rats were markedly increased following the intake of a Chinese herbal preparation, Wuzhi Tablet (WZ, Schisandra sphenanthera extract). In order to identify the underlying mechanisms of the increase in FK506 level, we investigated the effects of WZ on the absorption and first-pass(More)
Hyperoxia causes cell injury and death associated with reactive oxygen species formation and inflammatory responses. Recent studies show that hyperoxia-induced cell death involves apoptosis, necrosis, or mixed phenotypes depending on cell type, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using murine lung endothelial cells, we found that hyperoxia(More)
We have developed genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which manifest a large change in fluorescence upon NADH binding. We demonstrate the utility of these sensors in mammalian cells by monitoring the dynamic changes in NADH levels in subcellular organelles as affected by NADH transport, glucose(More)