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The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), recognizing lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria, plays an essential role in immune responses. Variation in TLR4 alters host immune responses to pathogen and is associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases, as suggested by studies in humans and agricultural species, including cattle and chicken.(More)
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs specialized functions to support retinal photoreceptors, including regeneration of the visual chromophore. Enzymes and carrier proteins in the visual cycle function sequentially to regenerate and continuously supply 11-cis-retinal to retinal photoreceptor cells. However, it is unknown how the expression of the(More)
Insecticide-detoxifying carboxylesterase (CE) gene CpCE-1 was cloned from Cydia pomonella. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and computational alanine scanning (CAS) indicate that Asn 232 in CpCE-1 constitutes an approximate binding hot-spot with a binding free energy difference (ΔΔGbind) value of 3.66 kcal/mol. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/km) of N232A(More)
Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), a downstream effector of small GTPase superfamily, has been identified to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Previously, our studies have showed that PLCε promotes proliferation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PLCε enhances the survival phenotype of RCC cells are still not fully(More)
Human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs) have a finite lifespan and eventually enter irreversible growth arrest known as cellular senescence which is thought to contribute to kidney aging and age-related kidney disorders, such as chronic kidney disease. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a latent transcription factor involved(More)
The Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays a crucial role in host defense against flagellated bacteria by recognizing flagellin. Accumulating evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR5 have an effect on flagellin recognition and are associated with susceptibility/resistance to disease. In this study, we analyzed association of SNPs,(More)
One of the hallmarks of cancer is a resistance to the induction of programmed cell death that is mediated by selection of cells with elevated expression of anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family. To counter this resistance, new therapeutic agents known as BH3-mimetic small molecules are in development with the goal of antagonizing the function of(More)
The structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography with a high affinity non-xanthine antagonist, ZM241385, bound to it. This template molecule served as a starting point for the incorporation of reactive moieties that cause the ligand to covalently bind to the receptor. In particular, we incorporated a(More)
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are localized in the bone marrow of adult mammals, come from hematopoietic endothelium during embryonic stages. Although the basic processes of HSC generation and differentiation have been described in the past, the epigenetic regulation of embryonic hematopoiesis remains to be fully described. Here, by utilizing an in(More)
The KNOX (KNOTTED1-like homeobox) transcription factors play a pivotal role in leaf and meristem development. The majority of these proteins are characterized by the KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK, and homeobox domains whereas the proteins of the KNATM family contain only the KNOX domains. We carried out an extensive inventory of these proteins and here report on a(More)
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