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The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in pain hypersensitivity. BDNF is the ligand of P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) in the microglia. The causative factors involving the P2X4R over expression in the microglia remains unclear. Mast cell activation has a close relation with pain hypersensitivity. However, the underlying mechanism between(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that histamine (HA) acts as a neurotransmitter in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system of the guinea pig. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HA widely exists in the sympathetic nervous systems of other species and the subcellular localization of HA in sympathetic terminals. An immunofluorescence(More)
The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured a nonzero value for the neutrino mixing angle θ(13) with a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. Antineutrinos from six 2.9 GWth reactors were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baseline 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. With(More)
The colocalization of histamine (HA) and norepinephrine (NE) immunoreactivities was identified within the superior cervical ganglia neurons of the guinea pig. HA and NE immunoreactivity levels were significantly attenuated after chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Coexistence of NE and HA was also visualized in the cardiac sympathetic(More)
A measurement of the energy dependence of antineutrino disappearance at the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. Electron antineutrinos (ν¯(e)) from six 2.9  GW(th) reactors were detected with six detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls. Using 217 days of data, 41(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine on transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats and 20mg/kg tetramethylpyrazine was injected intraperitoneally at different time points. Neurological deficit scores and(More)
In order to develop an effective strategy of breast cancer therapy targeting survivin and its splice variants survivin-ΔEx3 and survivin-2B, the present study constructed four expression vectors by fusing the survivin antisense gene, the survivin (T34A) gene, the survivin-ΔEx3 antisense gene, and the survivin-2B gene with the enhanced green fluorescent(More)
BACKGROUND RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of mammalian cells and tissues. Although its physiological importance in non-nervous tissues has been confirmed by analysis of null mutation phenotypes, few endogenous editing substrates have been identified in numerous peripheral tissues and biological function of(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist(More)