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The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in pain hypersensitivity. BDNF is the ligand of P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) in the microglia. The causative factors involving the P2X4R over expression in the microglia remains unclear. Mast cell activation has a close relation with pain hypersensitivity. However, the underlying mechanism between(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that histamine (HA) acts as a neurotransmitter in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system of the guinea pig. The aim of the current study was to examine whether HA widely exists in the sympathetic nervous systems of other species and the subcellular localization of HA in sympathetic terminals. An immunofluorescence(More)
The colocalization of histamine (HA) and norepinephrine (NE) immunoreactivities was identified within the superior cervical ganglia neurons of the guinea pig. HA and NE immunoreactivity levels were significantly attenuated after chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Coexistence of NE and HA was also visualized in the cardiac sympathetic(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine on transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats and 20mg/kg tetramethylpyrazine was injected intraperitoneally at different time points. Neurological deficit scores and(More)
BACKGROUND RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of mammalian cells and tissues. Although its physiological importance in non-nervous tissues has been confirmed by analysis of null mutation phenotypes, few endogenous editing substrates have been identified in numerous peripheral tissues and biological function of(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist(More)
Here we demonstrate the in situ formation of ultra-small gold nanoparticles (<2 nm) finely dispersed on a binary solid carrier, i.e. a mesoporous SiO2 coated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet. The as-synthesized Au-SiO2-GO composite has shown high catalytic activity and reusability for chemical reactions under mild conditions.
Our previous study demonstrated the co-localization of histamine with norepinephrine (NE) within superior cervical ganglia (SCG), and the release of histamine from sympathetic nerve endings of guinea pig evoked by stimulations. We have now further investigated that whether the histamine can be synthesized, stored and released from the sympathetic nerve(More)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of stroke. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have been in clinical use for the treatment of diabetes and also been reported to be neuroprotective in ischemic stroke. The quinoxaline 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert- butylaminoquinoxaline (DMB) is an agonist and allosteric modulator(More)