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To understand the molecular mechanism regulating meristem development in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa), we describe here the isolation and characterization of three floral organ number4 (fon4) alleles and the cloning of the FON4 gene. The fon4 mutants showed abnormal enlargement of the embryonic and vegetative shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and the(More)
Poaceae, one of the largest flowering plant families in angiosperms, evolved distinct inflorescence and flower morphology diverging from eudicots and other monocots. However, the mechanism underlying the specification of flower morphology in grasses remains unclear. Here we show that floral zygomorphy along the lemma-palea axis in rice (Oryza sativa) is(More)
Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis are crucial for plant growth and development. Two HKT transporter/channel classes have been characterized that mediate either Na(+) transport or Na(+) and K(+) transport when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and yeast. However, the Na(+)/K(+) selectivities of the K(+)-permeable HKT transporters have not yet been studied in(More)
Eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs, encoded by RDR genes) play critical roles in developmental regulation, maintenance of genome integrity, and defense against foreign nucleic acids. However, the phylogenetic relationship of RDRs remains unclear. From available genome sequences, we identified 161 putative RDR genes from 56 eukaryotes, ranging(More)
Noninvasive biomarkers with diagnostic value and prognostic applications have long been desired to replace muscle biopsy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Growing evidence indicates that circulating microRNAs are biomarkers to assess pathophysiological status. Here, we show that the serum levels of six muscle-specific miRNAs(More)
Drought is one of the most severe environmental stresses affecting plant growth and limiting crop production. Although many genes involved in adaptation to drought stress have been disclosed, the relevant molecular mechanisms are far from understood. This study describes an Arabidopsis gene, ASPG1 (ASPARTIC PROTEASE IN GUARD CELL 1), that may function in(More)
In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower(More)
Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) controls the transcription of genes governing angiogenesis under hypoxic condition during tumorigenesis. Here we show that hypoxia-responsive miR-182 is regulated by HIF1α at transcriptional level. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHD) and factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH1), negative regulators of HIF1(More)
BACKGROUND Sulfasalazine (SASP) pharmacologic actions are widely applied in clinical therapy. The role of N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) in the pharmacokinetics of SASP and its metabolites has not been clarified. We investigated the effects of genetic polymorphism of NAT2 on pharmacokinetic profiles of SASP and its two metabolites, sulfapyridine (SP) and(More)