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Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes (genus Schistosoma; schistosomes) and affecting 200 million people worldwide. No vaccines are available, and treatment relies on one drug, praziquantel. Schistosoma haematobium has come into the spotlight as a major cause of urogenital disease, as an agent linked to bladder cancer and as(More)
Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) at a subtoxic concentration (100 microM) promotes neuronal survival against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) autocrine loop in cultured cerebellar granule cells. The signal transduction mechanism(s) underlying NMDA neuroprotection, however, remains elusive. The mitogen-activated(More)
Delineating the mechanisms of survival pathways that exist in neurons will provide important insight into how neurons utilize intracellular proteins as neuroprotectants against the causes of acute neurodegeneration. We have employed cultured rat cerebellar granule cells as a model for determining the mechanisms of these intraneuronal survival pathways.(More)
PURPOSE Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the family of neurotrophins and promotes diverse effects in neurons including development, maintenance of function, synaptic plasticity, and survival in different animal models. We present advances in our understanding of the genomics of the BDNF gene (bdnf) and its regulation by(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), via activation of TrkB receptors, mediates vital physiological functions in the brain, ranging from neuronal survival to synaptic plasticity, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Although transcriptional regulation of the BDNF gene (Bdnf) has been extensively studied, much(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a member of the lipocalin family. Recently, an elevated NGAL expression was reported in several types of cancers. However, the characteristics of NGAL expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unknown. AIM To demonstrate the role of NGAL in ESCC. METHODS NGAL(More)
To determine the epigenetic events associated with NMDA receptor-mediated activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (Bdnf) promoter 1 by hippocampal neurons in culture, we screened 12 loci across 4.5 kb of genomic DNA 5' of the transcription start site (TSS) of rat Bdnf for specific changes in histone modification and transcription factor binding(More)
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have therapeutic potential in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of action underlying these effects are not well elucidated. We previously showed that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduced ischemic brain damage after a single treatment. To follow-up this finding, we(More)
PD-L1 expression is a feature of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we found that EBV-induced latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and IFN-γ pathways cooperate to regulate programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1). Expression of PD-L1 was higher in EBV positive NPC cell lines compared with EBV(More)