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Alpha-2a interferon (IFN-alpha2a) has beneficial clinical effects on human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, but its antiviral mechanism of action is unknown. Antiviral effects of IFN-alpha2a were studied in 293T cells expressing HTLV-1 proviral DNA and in HTLV-1-infected cells (HOS/PL, MT2, and HUT102). In 293T cells, an 50% inhibitory(More)
Although many animal viruses block the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway, this issue has not been previously investigated in retrovirus-infected cells. For this purpose, an infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was transfected into 293T or HeLa cells and was found to reduce interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)(More)
BACKGROUND Many Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems fail to provide user-friendly interfaces due to the lack of systematic consideration of human-centered computing issues. Such interfaces can be improved to provide easy to use, easy to learn, and error-resistant EHR systems to the users. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usability of an EHR system and suggest(More)
To cope with environmental stresses, plants often adopt a memory response upon primary stress exposure to facilitate a quicker and stronger reaction to recurring stresses. However, it remains unknown whether light is involved in the manifestation of stress memory. Proline accumulation is a striking metabolic adaptation of higher plants during various(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus-associated adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL) has a very poor prognosis, despite trials of a variety of different treatment regimens. Virus expression has been reported to be limited or absent when ATLL is diagnosed, and this has suggested that secondary genetic or epigenetic changes are important in disease(More)
Lymphotoxin (LT) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are important in immune system development and function. LT consists of soluble LT-alpha(3), which binds to TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and membrane LT-alpha(1)beta(2), which binds to LT-beta-R. We investigated the role of LT and TNF in disease induced by Daniel's (DA) strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis(More)
Nucleoside antibiotics constitute an important family of microbial natural products bearing diverse bioactivities and unusual structural features. Their biosynthetic logics are unique with involvement of complex multi-enzymatic reactions leading to the intricate molecules from simple building blocks. Understanding how nature builds this family of(More)