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Computer-based geometry systems have been widely used for teaching and learning, but largely based on mouse-and-keyboard interaction, these systems usually require users to draw figures by following strict task structures defined by menus, buttons, and mouse and keyboard actions. Pen-based designs offer a more natural way to develop geometry theorem proofs(More)
In recognition-based user interface, users' satisfaction is determined not only by recognition accuracy but also by effort to correct recognition errors. In this paper, we introduce a crossmodal error correction technique, which allows users to correct errors of Chinese handwriting recognition by speech. The focus of the paper is a multimodal fusion(More)
We propose an improved backpropagation algorithm intended to avoid the local minima problem caused by neuron saturation in the hidden layer. Each training pattern has its own activation functions of neurons in the hidden layer. When the network outputs have not got their desired signals, the activation functions are adapted so as to prevent neurons in the(More)
Raw digital ink is informal and unstructured. Its editing, especially its selection, is often inefficient. In this paper, we present approaches to structuralize raw digital ink as multiple hierarchies to facilitate its selection. First a link model is built to organize ink as a mesh-like structure. Based on the link model, the isolated stroke groups form(More)
In this paper, we describe a multimodal error correction mechanism. It allows the user to correct errors in continuous handwriting recognition naturally by simultaneously using pen gesture and speech. A multimodal fusion algorithm is designed to enhance recognition accuracies of handwriting and speech through cross-modal influence. We have performed(More)
One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD(More)
We have noted that the local minima problem in the backpropagation algorithm is usually caused by update disharmony between weights connected to the hidden layer and the output layer. To solve this problem, we propose a modified error function with added terms. By adding one term to the conventional error function, the modified error function can harmonize(More)
Numerous studies have identified that the slow acetylation status of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is associated with an elevated bladder cancer risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of NAT2 acetylation status in patients with bladder cancer. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve related(More)