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About 8,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, a spontaneous hybridization of the wild diploid grass Aegilops tauschii (2n = 14; DD) with the cultivated tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; AABB) resulted in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum; 2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD). Wheat has since become a primary staple crop worldwide as a result of its enhanced(More)
Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral(More)
Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The(More)
GABAergic neurotransmitter systems are important for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. We identified a single neuron in each hemisphere of the Drosophila brain, the anterior paired lateral (APL) neuron, as a GABAergic neuron that broadly innervated the mushroom bodies. Reducing GABA synthesis in the APL neuron enhanced olfactory(More)
In both mammals and insects, neurons involved in learning are strongly modulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. The GABAA receptor, resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), is highly expressed in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), a group of neurons playing essential roles in insect olfactory learning. Flies with increased or decreased expression of Rdl(More)
The proteins of the MYB superfamily play central roles in developmental processes and defence responses in plants. Sixty unique wheat MYB genes that contain full-length cDNA sequences were isolated. These 60 genes were grouped into three categories, namely one R1R2R3-MYB, 22 R2R3-MYBs, and 37 MYB-related members. The sequence composition of the R2 and R3(More)
In this paper we present a camera phone-based currency reader for the visually impaired that can identify the value of U.S. paper currency. Currently, U.S. paper currency can only be identified visually and this situation will continue for a foreseeable future. Our solution harvests the imaging and computational power on camera phones to read these bills.(More)
Seed germination plays a pivotal role during the life cycle of plants. As dry seeds imbibe water, the resumption of energy metabolism and cellular repair occur and miRNA-mediated gene expression regulation is involved in the reactivation events. This research was aimed at understanding the role of miRNA in the molecular control during seed imbibition(More)
—Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emis-sivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth's ecosystem and land-surface-type(More)