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TDP-43 proteinopathies have been observed in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (i.e., TDP) have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in frontotemporal lobe degeneration associated with motor neuron disease. To study the consequences of TDP mutation in an intact system, we created(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that apoptosis may be the underlying cell death mechanism in the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Because the inhibition of caspases provides only partial protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPTP/MPP(+)) model of Parkinson's disease, we(More)
Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) mediates gene silencing in many eukaryotes and has been widely used to investigate gene functions. A common method to induce sustained RNAi is introducing plasmids that synthesize short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) using Pol III promoters. While these promoters synthesize shRNAs and elicit RNAi efficiently, they lack cell specificity.(More)
Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) promoters can trigger sequence-selective gene silencing in culture and in vivo and, therefore, may be developed to treat diseases caused by dominant, gain-of-function type of gene mutations. These diseases develop in people bearing one mutant and one wild-type gene allele. While the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron degeneration, paralysis and death. One cause of this disease is mutations in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. As mutant SOD1 acquires a toxic property that kills motor neurons, by reducing the mutant protein the disease(More)
A compelling tool for functional genetics is to silence the expression of multiple related genes concomitantly and reversibly. Such a tool will accelerate the understanding on gene interaction in signaling pathway and the development of comprehensive animal models for human diseases. Multiple gene silencing may be achieved by concurrent expression of(More)
To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to(More)
Intrastriatal injection of the reversible succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate results in both chemically induced hypoxia and striatal lesions that are similar to those seen in Huntington's disease and cerebral ischaemia. The mechanisms leading to neuronal death involve secondary excitotoxicity, the release of dopamine from nigrostriatal fibres and(More)