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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the focus of intensive efforts worldwide directed not only at elucidating their nature and unique properties but also developing cell-based therapies for a diverse range of diseases. More than three decades have passed since the original formulation of the concept, revolutionary at the time, that multiple connective tissues(More)
Development of the vertebrate skeleton, a complex biological event that includes diverse processes such as formation of mesenchymal condensations at the sites of future skeletal elements, osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, and three dimensional patterning, is regulated by many growth factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that activation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMP/protein kinase G signaling inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced extracellular matrix expression in cardiac fibroblasts and defined the specific site(s) at which this molecular merging of signaling pathways occurs. Left ventricular hypertrophy and(More)
Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by palmoplantar and periorificial keratoderma, alopecia in most cases, and severe itching. The genetic basis for OS remained unidentified. Using whole-exome sequencing of case-parents trios, we have identified a de novo missense mutation in TRPV3 that produces p.Gly573Ser in an individual(More)
Bone remodeling depends on the precise coordination of bone resorption and subsequent bone formation. Disturbances of this process are associated with skeletal diseases, such as Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED). We show using in vitro and in vivo models that active TGF-beta1 released during bone resorption coordinates bone formation by inducing migration of(More)
The cascade of phosphorylation is a pivotal event in transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling. Reversible phosphorylation regulates fundamental aspects of cell activity. TGFbeta-induced Smad7 binds to type I receptor (TGFbeta type I receptor; TbetaRI) functioning as a receptor kinase antagonist. We found Smad7 interacts with growth arrest and DNA(More)
Mice deficient in the Msx2 gene manifest defects in skull ossification and a marked reduction in bone formation associated with decreases in osteoblast numbers, thus suggesting that Msx2 is involved in bone formation. However, the precise role of Msx2 during osteoblast differentiation is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role(More)
Inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), including Smad6 and Smad7, were initially characterized as cytoplasmic antagonists in the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway. However, I-Smads are also localized in the nucleus. Previously, we have shown that Smad6 can function as a transcriptional co-repressor. In this study, we found both Smad6 and Smad7 interact(More)
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibit an age-dependent reduction in osteogenesis that is accompanied by an increased propensity toward adipocyte differentiation. This switch increases adipocyte numbers and decreases the number of osteoblasts, contributing to age-related bone loss. Here, we found that the level of microRNA-188 (miR-188) is(More)
α-Hydroxyl acids (AHAs) from natural sources act as proton donors and topical compounds that penetrate skin and are well known in the cosmetic industry for their use in chemical peels and improvement of the skin. However, little is known about how AHAs cause exfoliation to expose fresh skin cells. Here we report that the transient receptor potential(More)