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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a condition in which the protein folding capacity of the ER becomes overwhelmed by an increased demand for secretion or by exposure to compounds that disrupt ER homeostasis. In yeast and other fungi, the accumulation of unfolded proteins is detected by the ER-transmembrane sensor IreA/Ire1, which responds by cleaving an(More)
Human noroviruses (NVs) are a common cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. The disease is difficult to control due to its widespread nature and the lack of antivirals or vaccines against NVs. The recent identification of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as NV receptors opens a new way for the discovery and design of antivirals against NVs. A(More)
Proteins that are destined for release outside the eukaryotic cell, insertion into the plasma membrane, or delivery to intracellular organelles are processed and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An imbalance between the level of nascent proteins entering the ER and the organelle's ability to manage that load results in the accumulation of unfolded(More)
Small GTPases of the Rab family are master regulators of membrane trafficking, responsible for coordinating the sorting, packaging and delivery of membrane-bound vesicles to specific sites within eukaryotic cells. The contribution of these proteins to the biology of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus has not been explored. In this study, we(More)
The genome of Aspergillus fumigatus encodes two isoforms of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA). Although deletion of the class I isoform, pkaC1, leads to an attenuation of virulence, the function of the class II subunit, PkaC2, was previously uninvestigated. In this report, we demonstrate that both isoforms act in concert to(More)
The filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus secretes hydrolytic enzymes to acquire nutrients from host tissues. The production of these enzymes exerts stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is alleviated by two stress responses: the unfolded protein response (UPR), which adjusts the protein folding capacity of the ER, and ER-associated(More)
BACKGROUND Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance is an herbal medication used in China as an analgesic. METHODS The effect of six flavonoid compounds isolated from Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance on stimulus-induced superoxide generation and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of protein in human neutrophils was investigated. The six compounds examined were(More)
Calnexin is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is part of a quality control system that promotes the accurate folding of glycoproteins entering the secretory pathway. We have previously shown that ER homeostasis is important for virulence of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, but the contribution of(More)
The ability of Aspergillus fumigatus to establish and maintain an infection requires a continuous supply of nutrients to fuel energy production and growth. Like other filamentous fungi, A. fumigatus acquires nutrients by absorption, a mode of nutrition that depends upon the secretion of extracellular hydrolases to degrade the complex organic polymers in(More)
BACKGROUND The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. Early diagnosis improves patient outcomes but remains challenging because of the limitations of current methods. To augment the clinician's toolkit for rapid diagnosis of AF infections, we are investigating AF secreted proteases as(More)