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The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using(More)
The recently cloned NPR1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is a key regulator of acquired resistance responses. Upon induction, NPR1 expression is elevated and the NPR1 protein is activated, in turn inducing expression of a battery of downstream pathogenesis-related genes. In this study, we found that NPR1 confers resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae(More)
Intrinsic disorder refers to segments or to whole proteins that fail to self-fold into fixed 3D structure, with such disorder sometimes existing in the native state. Here we report data on the relationships among intrinsic disorder, sequence complexity as measured by Shannon's entropy, and amino acid composition. Intrinsic disorder identified in protein(More)
We examined the modulation of persistent inward currents (PICs) by serotonin (5-HT) in spinal motoneurons of normal and chronic spinal rats. PICs are composed of both a TTX-sensitive persistent sodium current (Na PIC) and a nimodipine-sensitive persistent calcium current (Ca PIC), and we focused on quantifying the Na PIC (and its action on the total PIC),(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the(More)
The hypothesis of this study is that the mechanical integrity of the collagen network in bone deteriorates with age, and such adverse changes correlate with the decreased toughness of aged bone. To test the hypothesis, 30 human cadaveric femurs from donors ranging from 19 to 89 years of age were tested to determine the age-related changes in the mechanical(More)
Over the months following sacral spinal cord transection in adult rats, a pronounced spasticity syndrome emerges in the affected tail musculature, where long-lasting muscle spasms can be evoked by low-threshold afferent stimulation (termed long-lasting reflex). To develop an in vitro preparation to examine the neuronal mechanisms underlying spasticity, we(More)
In the months after spinal cord injury, motoneurons develop large voltage-dependent persistent inward currents (PICs) that cause sustained reflexes and associated muscle spasms. These muscle spasms are triggered by any excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that is long enough to activate the PICs, which take > 100 ms to activate. The PICs are composed of(More)
The vanilloid receptor (VR1) protein functions both as a receptor for capsaicin and a transducer of noxious thermal stimuli. To determine the expression and targetting of this protein, we have generated antisera against both the amino and carboxy termini of VR1. Within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of rats, VR1-immunoreactivity (VR1-ir) was(More)
Months after sacral spinal transection in rats (chronic spinal rats), motoneurons below the injury exhibit large, low-threshold persistent inward currents (PICs), composed of persistent sodium currents (Na PICs) and persistent calcium currents (Ca PICs). Here, we studied whether motoneurons of normal adult rats also exhibited Na and Ca PICs when the spinal(More)