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Spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) has received increasing attention because of its attractive features: good scalability, zero standby power, non-volatility and radiation hardness. The use of STT-RAM technology in the last level on-chip caches has been proposed as it minimizes cache leakage power with technology scaling down. Furthermore,(More)
Using the spin-transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) technology as lower level on-chip caches has been proposed to minimize leakage power consumption and enhance cache capacity at the scaled technologies. However, programming STT-RAM is a stochastic process due to the random thermal fluctuations. Conventional worst-case (corner) design with a fixed(More)
The recent successful integration of magnetic racetrack memory forecasts a new computing era with unprecedentedly high-density on-chip storage. However, racetrack memory accesses require frequent magnetic domain shifting, introducing overheads in access latency and energy consumption. In this paper, we evaluate and compare several different physical layout(More)
As the technology scales down, the increased power density brings in significant system reliability issues. Therefore, the temperature monitoring and the induced power management become more and more critical. The thermal fluctuation effects of the recently discovered spintronic memristor make it a promising candidate as a temperature sensing device. In(More)
The <i>spin-transfer torque random access memory</i> (STT-RAM) has gained increasing attentions for its high density, fast read access, zero standby power, and good scalability. The recently proposed retention-relax design further improves STT-RAM write access performance and makes it even more promising as an on-chip memory technology. Nevertheless, the(More)
—The use of STT-RAM as on-chip caches has been widely studied. However, existing works focused mainly on single-level cell (SLC) design while the potential of multi-level cell (MLC) STT-RAM has not yet been fully explored. It is expected that MLC STT-RAM can achieve 2× the storage density of SLC and thus improves system performance. Unfortunately, at the(More)