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Nitrite anions comprise the largest vascular storage pool of nitric oxide (NO), provided that physiological mechanisms exist to reduce nitrite to NO. We evaluated the vasodilator properties and mechanisms for bioactivation of nitrite in the human forearm. Nitrite infusions of 36 and 0.36 micromol/min into the forearm brachial artery resulted in supra- and(More)
Nitric oxide has been proposed to be transported by hemoglobin as a third respiratory gas and to elicit vasodilation by an oxygen-linked (allosteric) mechanism. For hemoglobin to transport nitric oxide bioactivity it must capture nitric oxide as iron nitrosyl hemoglobin rather than destroy it by dioxygenation. Once bound to the heme iron, nitric oxide has(More)
Nitrite has long been known to be vasoactive when present at large concentrations but it was thought to be inactive under physiological conditions. Surprisingly, we have recently shown that supraphysiological and near physiological concentrations of nitrite cause vasodilation in the human circulation. These effects appeared to result from reduction of(More)
Previous studies have revealed a novel interaction between deoxyhemoglobin and nitrite to generate nitric oxide (NO) in blood. It has been proposed that nitrite acts as an endocrine reservoir of NO and contributes to hypoxic vasodilation and signaling. Here, we characterize the nitrite reductase activity of deoxymyoglobin, which reduces nitrite(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 (encoded by Hmox1) catalyzes the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin and carbon monoxide. HO-1 is induced during inflammation and oxidative stress to protect tissues from oxidative damage. Because intravascular thrombosis forms at sites of tissue inflammation, we hypothesized that HO-1 protects against arterial thrombosis(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is emerging as a major complication and independent risk factor for death among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), we searched for biomarkers of PAH in plasma specimens from 27 homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS)(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play important roles in suppressing immune responses and maintaining tolerance. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) and horse ATG (hATG) are widely used in the treatment of immune-mediated syndromes, but their effects on Treg are unknown. We show here that in vitro culture of normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)(More)
The pathophysiology underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle is incompletely characterized. To further delineate this we investigated the interaction between insulin signaling, mitochondrial regulation, and function in C2C12 myotubes and in skeletal muscle. In myotubes elevated insulin and glucose disrupt insulin signaling,(More)
CONTEXT Thirty percent of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) develop pulmonary hypertension, a major risk factor for death in this population. A validated blood biomarker of pulmonary hypertension in SCD could provide important prognostic and diagnostic information and allow the exploration of the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in participants in(More)
BACKGROUND In sickle cell disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury and intravascular hemolysis produce endothelial dysfunction and vasculopathy characterized by reduced nitric oxide and arginine bioavailability. Recent functional studies of platelets in patients with sickle cell disease reveal a basally activated state, which suggests that pathological platelet(More)