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Treg cells and the programed death-1/programed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway are both critical for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-Ags. A significant subset of Treg cells constitutively expresses PD-1, which prompted an investigation into the role of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions in Treg-cell development, function, and induction in vivo. The(More)
Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) exert an important role in mediating maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, and this effect might be regulated via maternal estrogen secretion. Although estrogen concentration in the pharmaceutical range has been shown to drive expansion of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, little is known about how and(More)
In the process of oocyte maturation, gonadotrophins are believed as main stimulators for oocyte meiosis resumption. However, which gonadotrophin (i.e. FSH or LH) is the key hormone in this process is still unknown. This study indicated a close relationship between LH and FSH on activating meiotic maturation of oocyte in vitro. FSH efficiently induced oocyte(More)
As an important biological messenger, nitric oxide (NO) exhibits a wide range of effects during physiological and pathophysiological processes, including mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study investigated whether NO derived from two nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, inducible NOS (iNOS) or endothelial NOS (eNOS), is involved in the(More)
Spontaneous antigen-specific T cell responses can be generated in hosts harboring a variety of solid malignancies, but are subverted by immune evasion mechanisms active within the tumor microenvironment. In contrast to solid tumors, the mechanisms that regulate T cell activation versus tolerance to hematological malignancies have been underexplored. A(More)
It is proved that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors mediate gonadotropin-induced rodent oocyte maturation via EGF receptor (EGFR). However, the detail kinetics and signal pathway between FSH and EGF/EGFR is not clear in large animals. In the present study, we investigated the roles of EGFR and protein kinase C (PKC) in FSH-induced porcine oocyte(More)
Here we showed that ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene natural product, and its novel prodrug derivative US597 suppressed cancer cells adhesion, invasion and migration. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of focal adhesion signaling pathway including alterations in ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, integrin α6β1, FAK, Src, paxillin and(More)
Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), a cGMP specific, cGMP binding phosphodiesterase, specifically hydrolyzes cGMP to 5'-GMP. Here, we examine the distribution of PDE5 in mouse ovary and its effects on spontaneous maturation of mouse oocytes. PDE5 is present in oocytes and cumulus cells of big, antral follicles. Inhibition of activity of PDE5 significantly and(More)
Cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in sterols and steroids biosynthesis that can induce meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes. The present study investigated the expression mechanism and function of CYP51 during FSH-induced mouse cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) meiotic resumption. FSH increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase(More)
Partitioning-defective proteins (PAR) are detected to express mainly in the cytoplast, and play an important role in cell polarity. However, we showed here that PAR6, one kind of PAR protein, was localized in the nuclei of mouse oocytes that formed primordial follicles during the perinatal period, suggesting a new role of PAR protein. It is the first time(More)