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Directed membrane trafficking is believed to be crucial for axon development during neuronal morphogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report a role of Lgl1, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumor suppressor Lethal giant larvae, in controlling membrane trafficking underlying axonal growth. We find that Lgl1 is(More)
Dendrite morphogenesis is regulated by neuronal activity or neurotrophins, which may function by activating intrinsic signaling proteins, including Rho family GTPases. Here we report that activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent dendritic morphogenesis requires activation of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGT), a prenyltransferase that(More)
During the development of vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), agrin stabilizes, whereas acetylcholine (ACh) destabilizes AChR clusters, leading to the refinement of synaptic connections. The intracellular mechanism underlying this counteractive interaction remains elusive. Here, we show that caspase-3, the effector protease involved in apoptosis,(More)
Myosin X (Myo X), an unconventional myosin with a tail homology 4-band 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin (MyTH4-FERM) tail, is expressed ubiquitously in various mammalian tissues. In addition to the full-length Myo X (Myo X FL), a headless form is synthesized in the brain. So far, little is known about the function of this motor-less Myo X. In this study, the role(More)
During development, mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) transit from multiple-innervation to single-innervation through axonal competition via unknown molecular mechanisms. Previously, using an in vitro model system, we demonstrated that the postsynaptic secretion of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) stabilizes or eliminates presynaptic(More)
At the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is stimulated by motor neuron-derived glycoprotein Agrin and requires a number of intracellular signal or structural proteins, including AChR-associated scaffold protein Rapsyn. Here, we report a role of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a well known transcription(More)
5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an essential precursor for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrols such as heme and chlorophyll (Chl). Previous studies have focused mainly on promotive effects of exogenous ALA on plant growth, while regulatory mechanisms affecting Chl biosynthesis have been only partially discussed. In the present study, the ameliorative role of(More)
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