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We studied the synthesis, cleavage rates, and oral administration of prodrugs of the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) lopinavir and ritonavir. Phosphate esters attached directly to the central hydroxyl groups of these PIs did not demonstrate enzyme-mediated cleavage in vitro and did not provide measurable plasma levels of the parent drugs in vivo. However,(More)
A system dynamics optimization model of the industrial structure of Tieling City based on water environmental carrying capacity has been established. This system is divided into the following subsystems: water resources, economics, population, contaminants, and agriculture and husbandry. Three schemes were designed to simulate the model from 2011 to 2020,(More)
The structure-activity relationships in two series of novel, symmetry-based inhibitors of HIV protease, the enzyme responsible for maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus, are described. Beginning with lead compounds 3-6, the effect of adding polar, heterocyclic end groups to one or both ends of the symmetric or pseudosymmetric inhibitors was probed.(More)
A two-fold (C2) symmetric inhibitor of the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) has been designed on the basis of the three-dimensional symmetry of the enzyme active site. The symmetric molecule inhibited both protease activity and acute HIV-1 infection in vitro, was at least 10,000-fold more potent against HIV-1 protease than against(More)
Specific processing of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag and gag-pol polyprotein gene products by the HIV protease is essential for the production of mature, infections progeny virions. Inhibitors of HIV protease block this maturation and thus prohibit the spread of HIV in vitro. Previously, we reported a series of novel, symmetric inhibitors of(More)
A new stereocontrolled synthesis of the psi[CH = CH] dipeptide isostere is described. They key step of the sequence relies on the stereospecific alpha-alkylation of delta-amino-gamma-mesyloxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters. The broad availability of nucleophilic alpha-side chains by this method allows the preparation of a wide variety of psi[CH = CH](More)
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