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Mammalian cells from both sexes typically contain one active X chromosome but two sets of autosomes. It has previously been hypothesized that X-linked genes are expressed at twice the level of autosomal genes per active allele to balance the gene dose between the X chromosome and autosomes (termed 'Ohno's hypothesis'). This hypothesis was supported by the(More)
Gene duplication is the primary source of new genes. Duplicate genes that are stably preserved in genomes usually have divergent functions. The general rules governing the functional divergence, however, are not well understood and are controversial. The neofunctionalization (NF) hypothesis asserts that after duplication one daughter gene retains the(More)
Eukaryotic genes are on average more complex than prokaryotic genes in terms of expression regulation, protein length, and protein-domain structure [1-5]. Eukaryotes are also known to have a higher rate of gene duplication than prokaryotes do [6, 7]. Because gene duplication is the primary source of new genes [], the average gene complexity in a genome may(More)
The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that important proteins evolve more slowly than unimportant ones. High-throughput gene-knockout experiments in model organisms have provided information on the dispensability, and therefore importance, of thousands of proteins in a genome. However, previous studies of the correlation between protein(More)
Susumu Ohno proposed in 1967 that, during the origin of mammalian sex chromosomes from a pair of autosomes, per-allele expression levels of X-linked genes were doubled to compensate for the degeneration of their Y homologs. This conjecture forms the foundation of the current evolutionary model of sex chromosome dosage compensation, but has been tested in(More)
Gene duplication plays an important role in evolution because it is the primary source of new genes. Many recent studies showed that gene duplicability varies considerably among genes. Several considerations led us to hypothesize that less important genes have higher rates of successful duplications, where gene importance is measured by the fitness(More)
Despite our extensive knowledge about the rate of protein sequence evolution for thousands of genes in hundreds of species, the corresponding rate of protein function evolution is virtually unknown, especially at the genomic scale. This lack of knowledge is primarily because of the huge diversity in protein function and the consequent difficulty in gauging(More)
Theoretical reasoning suggests that cancer may result from a knockdown of the genetic constraints that evolved for the maintenance of metazoan multicellularity. By characterizing the whole-life history of a xenograft tumour, here we show that metastasis is driven by positive selection for general loss-of-function mutations on multicellularity-related genes.(More)