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Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has a critical role in immune responses to intracellular bacterial infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, whether miRNAs can directly target IFN-γ and regulate IFN-γ production post-transcriptionally remains unknown. Here we show that infection of mice with Listeria(More)
E3 ubiquitin ligases are important in both innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that Nrdp1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines but increased interferon-beta production in Toll-like receptor-triggered macrophages by suppressing adaptor MyD88-dependent activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1(More)
The liver has been generally considered an organ prone to tolerance induction and maintenance. However, whether and how the unique liver microenvironment contributes to tolerance maintenance is largely unknown. Here, we used liver fibroblastic stromal cells to mimic the liver microenvironment and found that liver stroma could induce Lin(-)CD117(+)(More)
The tissue microenvironment may affect the development and function of immune cells such as DC. Whether and how the pulmonary stromal microenvironment can affect the development and function of lung DC need to be investigated. Regulatory DC (DCreg) can regulate T-cell response. We wondered whether such regulatory DC exist in the lung and what is the effect(More)
Exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) can lead to seizures, the etiology of which is not completely understood. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) plays a very important role in maintaining excitatory-inhibitory balance of the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study we investigated the effects of HBO on the activity and content of GAD in vivo and in(More)
CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized at cross-presenting extracellular antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to initiate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses; however, details of the mechanisms that regulate cross-presentation remain unknown. We found lower expression of the lectin family member Siglec-G in CD8α(+)(More)
Interleukin-17A-producing T cells, especially Th17, have been shown to be involved in inflammatory autoimmune diseases and host defense against extracellular infections. However, whether and how IL-17A or IL-17A-producing cells can help protection against intracellular bacteria remains controversial, especially how it regulates the adaptive immunity besides(More)
The heterogeneity and mechanisms for the generation of CD4 memory T (CD4 Tm) cells remain elusive. Distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) have been found to regulate a distinct T-helper (Th)-cell subset differentiation by influencing cytokine cues around CD4 T cells; however, whether and how the regulatory DC subset can regulate Tm-cell differentiation(More)
The adhesion molecule alphavbeta3 integrin plays an important role in tumor development and metastases. We demonstrated the specificity of the probe to alphavbeta3 integrin with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The in vivo targeting behavior of the probe was examined in 2 tumor models with different alphavbeta3(More)