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In MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple characteristics in terms of transmission power, energy, capacity etc. Especially in MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple, nodes are likely to transmit at different power levels, thereby causing conversation links varying. This causes link asymmetry problem. The link asymmetry problem(More)
the rapid growth in the popularity of portable computation and communication devices (e.g., mobile phones, PDAs, and lap-tops), a new networking environment where mobile users can take advantage of opportunistic encounters with other users to forward data or share information in a peer-to-peer fashion has been attracting increasing interest [1, 2]. It has(More)
Smart Grid is a new type of energy-based cyber physical system (CPS) that will provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution. The way to secure the distributed energy routing process that efficiently utilizes the distributed energy resources and minimizes the energy transmission overhead is essential in smart grid. In this(More)
—Recent advances in solar harvesting technologies pave the way for sustainable environmental-monitoring applications in the emerging solar powered wireless sensor networks (SP-WSNs). The complexities associated with the low-resourced, high-dynamic, and vulnerable sensor nodes operating in potentially unattended or hostile environments require a high degree(More)