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The rapidly increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in consumer products and medical applications has raised ecological and human health concerns. A key question for addressing these concerns is whether Ag NP toxicity is mechanistically unique to nanoparticulate silver, or if it is a result of the release of silver ions. Furthermore, since Ag NPs(More)
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are frequently used as antimicrobials. While the mechanism(s) by which AgNPs are toxic are unclear, their increasing use raises the concern that release into the environment could lead to environmental toxicity. We characterized the physicochemical behavior, uptake, toxicity (growth inhibition), and mechanism of toxicity of(More)
Power heterogeneity is common in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). With high-power nodes, MANETs can improve network scalability, connectivity, and broadcasting robustness. However, the throughput of power heterogeneous MANETs can be severely impacted by high-power nodes. To address this issue, we present a loose-virtual-clustering-based (LVC) routing(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in neural development, β-catenin is a central component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which not only performs the function of transmitting information in the cytoplasm, but also translocates to the nucleus-activating target gene transcription. The target genes in neural tissues have not(More)
Phytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence(More)
Human mobility modeling plays an essential role in accurately understanding the performance of data forwarding protocols in mobile networks and has been attracting increasing research interest in recent years. People's movement behaviors are strongly affected by their social interactions with each other, which, however, are not sufficiently considered in(More)
• The Phytophthora sojae genome encodes hundreds of RxLR effectors predicted to manipulate various plant defense responses, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized in detail the P. sojae RxLR effector Avh241. • To determine the function and localization of Avh241, we transiently expressed it on different plants.(More)
Node clustering is an effective technique to mitigate the topology changes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) because nodes are dynamic in nature due to the mobility of nodes. Many clustering algorithms, in which MANET is usually assumed to be homogeneous, have been proposed. However, a homogeneous MANET suffers from poor scalability. Recent research has(More)
A functional rs4245739 A>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) locating in the MDM43'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region creates a miR-191-5p or miR-887-3p targeting sites. This change results in decreased expression of oncogene MDM4. Therefore, we examined the association between this SNP and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) risk as well as its regulatory function(More)