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In MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple characteristics in terms of transmission power, energy, capacity etc. Especially in MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple, nodes are likely to transmit at different power levels, thereby causing conversation links varying. This causes link asymmetry problem. The link asymmetry problem(More)
the rapid growth in the popularity of portable computation and communication devices (e.g., mobile phones, PDAs, and lap-tops), a new networking environment where mobile users can take advantage of opportunistic encounters with other users to forward data or share information in a peer-to-peer fashion has been attracting increasing interest [1, 2]. It has(More)
Smart Grid is a new type of energy-based cyber physical system (CPS) that will provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution. The way to secure the distributed energy routing process that efficiently utilizes the distributed energy resources and minimizes the energy transmission overhead is essential in smart grid. In this(More)
Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in neural development, β-catenin is a central component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which not only performs the function of transmitting information in the cytoplasm, but also translocates to the nucleus-activating target gene transcription. The target genes in neural tissues have not(More)
The enhancement of endogenous neurogenesis has been suggested in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the factors that trigger the process of adult neurogenesis following TBI remain elusive. In the adult mammalian central nervous system, there are 2 neurogenic regions: the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular(More)