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In MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple characteristics in terms of transmission power, energy, capacity etc. Especially in MANETs, network may consist of devices with multiple, nodes are likely to transmit at different power levels, thereby causing conversation links varying. This causes link asymmetry problem. The link asymmetry problem(More)
Smart Grid is a new type of energy-based cyber physical system (CPS) that will provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution. The way to secure the distributed energy routing process that efficiently utilizes the distributed energy resources and minimizes the energy transmission overhead is essential in smart grid. In this(More)
Human mobility modeling plays an essential role in accurately understanding the performance of data forwarding protocols in mobile networks and has been attracting increasing research interest in recent years. People's movement behaviors are strongly affected by their social interactions with each other, which, however, are not sufficiently considered in(More)
Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes(More)
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in neural development, β-catenin is a central component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which not only performs the function of transmitting information in the cytoplasm, but also translocates to the nucleus-activating target gene transcription. The target genes in neural tissues have not(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides were developed to study the expression and function of angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors in cultured cells and brain. In both liver epithelial WB and neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells AT1 antisense oligomers substantially decreased AT1 receptor density, whereas angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptors remained unchanged. Similarly, repeated(More)
The enhancement of endogenous neurogenesis has been suggested in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the factors that trigger the process of adult neurogenesis following TBI remain elusive. In the adult mammalian central nervous system, there are 2 neurogenic regions: the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular(More)