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Remote sensed images with very high spatial resolution like Ikonos, QuickBird, etc., can distinguish clearly detailed features such as building, roads, vehicles, and trees. However, the amount of shadow increases with the spatial resolution. Shadow occurs when objects totally or partially occlude the direct light projected from a source of illumination [3].(More)
A practical algorithm was proposed to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in mid-latitude regions. The key parameter transmittance is generally computed from water vapor content, while water vapor channel is absent in VIIRS data. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the water vapor content was(More)
Situative theories of knowing and participatory approaches to learning and assessment were used to offer a big open online course on Educational Assessment using Google CourseBuilder in 2013. The course was started by 160 students and completed by 60, with relatively extensive instructor interaction with individual learners. This yielded much higher levels(More)
This paper focuses on assessing the effectiveness of applying orientation angle calibration to polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data for soil moisture estimation. We employ Cloude-decomposition-based method to estimate the orientation angle because it can relate a scatter-distributed pixel to its major component of an equivalent “pure target,”(More)
Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we(More)
Based on today’s most widely used surface scattering model, the advanced integral equation model (AIEM), this study proposes a novel soil moisture inversion model that estimates bare surface soil moisture using double-incidence angle and dualpolarized L-band radar data. Compared with previous studies at L-/C-band, the proposed method provides the estimation(More)
This case study describes how course features and individual & social learning analytics were scaled up to support "participatory" learning. An existing online course was turned into a "big open online course" (BOOC) offered to hundreds. Compared to typical open courses, relatively high levels of persistence, individual & social engagement, and(More)
This study proposes a microwave surface emission model for soil moisture retrieval using radiometer data based on today’s most widely used physical model, i.e., advanced integral equation model (AIEM). Soil roughness and moisture effects are easily yet accurately decoupled in the proposed model. In the field case study, the total least squares method,(More)