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Influenza infection is a major clinical problem and Echinacea purpurea, a widely consumed botanical product, is purported to alter the course of respiratory infections including influenza. Mice infected with WSN influenza A and treated with E. purpurea polysaccharide extract had less weight loss than untreated mice but similar pulmonary viral titers.(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with the initiation and progression of adult periodontal disease. Iron is utilized by this pathogen in the form of heme and has been shown to play an essential role in its growth and virulence. Recently, considerable attention has been given to the characterization of various(More)
Gonorrhea often occurs as a coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a component of the gonococcal outer membrane that induces innate immunity through engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We investigated the effects that LOS from 5 different strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have on HIV infection and on HIV(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI), associated with significant morbidity and mortality, is widely known to involve epithelial apoptosis, excessive inflammation, and fibrosis in response to ischemia or reperfusion injury, which results in either chronic pathological changes or death. Therefore, it is imperative that investigations are conducted in order to find(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periopathogen strongly associated with the development of adult-type periodontitis. Both the virulence characteristics of periopathogens and host-related factors are believed to contribute to periodontitis. P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) displays a significant amount of lipid A structural heterogeneity, containing both(More)
OBJECTIVE Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a group of pathogen-associated microbial pattern recognition receptors, play an important role in innate immune signaling and are differentially regulated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of TLRs in the progression of atherosclerosis is still unclear. METHODS AND(More)
The phenotype of HIV-1 gp120 envelope derived from renal epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy was investigated in vitro. Chimeric viruses were derived from kidney or blood and used to infect primary CD4+T cells, cell lines expressing single co-receptors and a renal epithelial cell line HPT-1.(More)
Sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is predominant in the male reproductive tract. Similar to β-defensin, aside from its antibacterial activity, SPAG11 also has an important role in male reproductive function. In the present study, the association of bovine SPAG11 gene polymorphism with sperm quality traits was examined, including ejaculate volume, sperm(More)
We have previously identified and characterized a heme/hemoglobin receptor, HmuR, in Porphyromonas gingivalis. To analyze the conserved amino acid residues of HmuR that may be involved in hemin/hemoprotein binding and utilization, we constructed a series of P. gingivalis A7436 hmuR mutants with amino acid replacements and characterized the ability of these(More)
CD8(+) T lymphocytes control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by a cytotoxic major histocompatibility complex-restricted pathway as well as by secretion of noncytotoxic soluble inhibitory factors. Several components of CD8(+) cell supernatants have been identified that contribute to the latter activity. In this study we report that(More)