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Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacterial blooms, and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic among the 80 MC variants. Data have shown that the liver is one of the specific target organs for MC-LR, which can cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the(More)
Artemisinin (QHS) and its derivatives dihydroartemisinin (DHA), artemether and artesunate have become the first-line anti-malarials in areas of multidrug resistance. Declining plasma concentrations during the repeated dosing have been reported for QHS, artemether and less convincingly for artesunate (ARS). However, there is limited information on whether(More)
Soybean seed coat exists in a range of colors from yellow, green, brown, black, to bicolor. Classical genetic analysis suggested that soybean seed color was a moderately complex trait controlled by multi-loci. However, only a couple of loci could be detected using a single biparental segregating population. In this study, a combination of association(More)
Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated(More)
Reactive oxygen species are considered to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. 8-Oxoguanine, which is one of the major oxidation base lesions produced by reactive oxygen species, may cause G:C to T:A transversion mutations because it can mispair with adenine. hMTH1 (human mutT homolog 1), hOGG1 (human(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates lipid metabolism both in peripheral and in the brain. The human APOE gene has three polymorphic alleles that influence the risk for various types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A potential association between APOE allele and the risk for gastric cancer has been implicated, but the specific allele involved and(More)
Artequick is a relatively inexpensive artemisinin (Qing-hao-su; QHS)-based combination therapy (ACT) that contains QHS and piperaquine (PQ), which has not been widely used because of the decreased concentration level of QHS after repeated oral administrations for five to seven days as a monotherapy. This study was designed to evaluate the potential(More)
FSH plays a critical role in granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and steroidogenesis through modulation by factors including bone morphogenetic proteins family, which belongs to transforming growth factor β (TGFB) superfamily. TGFBs are the key factors in maintaining cell growth and differentiation in ovaries. However, the interaction of FSH and TGFB on the(More)
–Physical processes with memory and hereditary properties can be best described by fractional differential equations based on the memory effect of fractional derivatives. For that reason reliable and efficient techniques for the solution of fractional differential equations are needed. Our aim is to generalize the wavelet collocation method to fractional(More)
INTRODUCTION Soybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs), especially oligopeptides, have shown a variety of functional properties, including immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects. Soybean protein hydrolysate products have been used as functional ingredients in food, sports nutrition or clinical nutrition. However, the mixture is mostly undefined due to its(More)