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Glaucoma, a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a neurodegenerative optic neuropathy in which vision loss is caused by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). To better define the pathways mediating RGC death and identify targets for the development of neuroprotective drugs, we developed a high-throughput RNA interference screen with primary RGCs and used(More)
BACKGROUND To directly compare traditional lipid ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-HDL-C/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]/HDL-C, and triglycerides [TG]/HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and the(More)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified genetic variants in the promoter region of the high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) gene associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a secreted serine protease, HTRA1 has been reported to interact with members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and regulate their(More)
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) share some key characteristics: self-organization and decentralization, and both need to solve the same fundamental problem: connectivity. We motivate a study for the convergence of the two overlay network technologies and sketch an evolving architecture towards integrating the two technologies(More)
We developed a procedure for identifying transcriptional Master Regulators (MRs) related to special biological phenomena, such as diseases, in conjunction with network screening and inference. Network screening is a system for detecting activated transcriptional regulatory networks under particular conditions, based on the estimation of graph structure(More)
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) appears to regulate several neuroendocrine functions in the frog, but its messenger RNA (mRNA) structure and brain distribution are unknown. To understand the potential role of PACAP in the male frog hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we cloned the frog Xenopus laevis PACAP mRNA and determined its(More)
A lot of networks today are behind firewalls. In peer-to-peer networking, firewall-protected peers may have to communicate with peers outside the firewall. This paper shows how to design peer-to-peer systems to work with different kinds of firewalls within the object-oriented action systems framework by combining formal and informal methods. We present our(More)