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Ethylene response factors (ERF) play crucial roles in plant development and response to stresses. Here, a novel cDNA fragment (MsERF8) encoding an ERF protein with an AP2 domain was isolated and characterized from alfalfa. The MsERF8 cDNA has an open reading frame of 603 bp and encodes a nuclear protein of 201 amino acids. Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed that(More)
BACKGROUND Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass(More)
Improvement of endogenous polyamine (PA) levels by exogenous spermidine (Spd) application in leaves may promote drought tolerance of plants. In this study, leaves of creeping bentgrass (cv. ‘Penn-A4’) were pretreated with 0.2 mmol Spd every another day for three cycles before water was limited for 15 days in a growth chamber. The application of exogenous(More)
Spermidine (Spd) may be involved in the regulation of plant adaptation to drought stress. The objectives of the study were to identify the physiological effect and elucidate the possible mechanism caused by exogenous Spd (0.05 mM) in white clover under water stress induced by 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 for 12 days. Water stress elevated significantly the(More)
Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression; however, changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted. Therefore, a set of stably expressed reference genes for data normalization is required. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)(More)
Endogenous polyamine (PA) may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm). Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of(More)
The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino' and drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa') under controlled drying(More)
This study was designed to determine the effect of exogenous spermidine (Spd) (30 μM) on white clover seed germination under water stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000. Use of seed priming with Spd improved seed germination percentage, germination vigor, germination index, root viability and length, and shortened mean germination time under different(More)
A novel orthologue of ethylene response factor gene, MsERF11, was isolated from alfalfa in this study. It has an open reading frame of 807 bp, encoding a predicted polypeptide of 268 amino acids. Sequence similarity analysis clearly suggested that MsERF11 encoded an ethylene response factor protein. The results of transient expression of MsERF11 in onion(More)