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After antigen-driven expansion, the majority of T cells involved in an immune response die rapidly by apoptosis dependent on the Bcl-2 related proteins, Bim and Bax or Bak. The details of how these proteins are activated and interact are still unclear. The crystal structure of mouse Bcl-x(L) bound to a long helical fragment of Bim indicates that the(More)
The generation of the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires homotypic membrane fusion that is mediated by the dynamin-like, membrane-bound GTPase atlastin (ATL). Here, we have determined crystal structures of the cytosolic segment of human ATL1, which give insight into the mechanism of membrane fusion. The structures reveal a GTPase(More)
Mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, is a major mechanism involved in mitochondrial quality control via selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Interactions between LC3 and mitophagy receptors such as FUNDC1, which harbors an LC3-interacting region (LIR), are essential for this selective process. However, how mitochondrial stresses are(More)
Previous investigations of the salinity effects on the microbial community composition have largely been limited to dynamic estuaries and coastal solar salterns. In this study, the effects of salinity and mineralogy on microbial community composition was studied by using a 900-cm sediment core collected from a stable, inland hypersaline lake, Lake Chaka, on(More)
Pathogenic bacteria deliver effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion apparatus to modulate the host function. We identify a family of proteins, homologous to the type III effector Cif from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, in pathogens including Yersinia, Photorhabdus, and Burkholderia that contain functional type III secretion(More)
The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and(More)
We have solved the crystal structure of the MHCII molecule, IA(b), containing an antigenic variant of the major IA(b)-binding peptide derived from the MHCII IEalpha chain. The four MHC pockets at p1, p4, p6, and p9 that usually bind peptide side chains are largely empty because of alanines in the peptide at these positions. The complex is nevertheless very(More)
Microtubule-binding proteins are a group of molecules that associate with microtubules, regulate the structural properties of microtubules, and thereby participate in diverse microtubule-mediated cellular activities. A recent mass spectrometry-based proteomic study has identified microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) domain-containing 3 (Mdp3) as a(More)
Progressive tissue fibrosis is a cause of major morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis is an epithelial-mesenchymal disorder in which TGF-β1 plays a central role in pathogenesis. Here we show that follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) differentially regulates TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, leading to epithelial injury and fibroblast activation.(More)
FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N), which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed(More)