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The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and(More)
High in normal (HIN)-1 is a secreted protein highly expressed in normal breast epithelium and down-regulated in breast carcinomas. By searching GenBank expressed sequence tag databases, we identified HIN-2, a protein homologous to HIN-1. HIN-2 is identical with a recently identified protein called uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1). Northern blot(More)
Previous investigations of the salinity effects on the microbial community composition have largely been limited to dynamic estuaries and coastal solar salterns. In this study, the effects of salinity and mineralogy on microbial community composition was studied by using a 900-cm sediment core collected from a stable, inland hypersaline lake, Lake Chaka, on(More)
Maternal effect genes play essential roles in early embryonic development. However, the mechanisms by which maternal effect genes regulate mammalian early embryonic development remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that is composed of at least four proteins encoded by Mater, Floped, Tle6 and Filia and is(More)
Pathogenic bacteria deliver effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion apparatus to modulate the host function. We identify a family of proteins, homologous to the type III effector Cif from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, in pathogens including Yersinia, Photorhabdus, and Burkholderia that contain functional type III secretion(More)
The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs, and eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of viral RNAs to mimic cellular mRNA structure, which is important for RNA stability, protein translation and viral immune escape. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes two S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase) which(More)
Progressive tissue fibrosis is a cause of major morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis is an epithelial-mesenchymal disorder in which TGF-β1 plays a central role in pathogenesis. Here we show that follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) differentially regulates TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, leading to epithelial injury and fibroblast activation.(More)
Formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network requires homotypic membrane fusion, which involves a class of atlastin (ATL) GTPases. Purified Drosophila ATL is capable of mediating vesicle fusion in vitro, but such activity has not been reported for any other ATLs. Here, we determined the preliminary crystal structure of the cytosolic segment of(More)
The introduction of antigen into animals causes antigen-specific T cells to divide and then die. Activated T cell death requires either of the death effector molecules, Bak or Bax. When T cells die, Bak and Bax change their conformations, a phenomenon that is thought to be required for Bak or Bax to drive cell death. Here we show that Bak changes(More)
FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N), which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed(More)