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After antigen-driven expansion, the majority of T cells involved in an immune response die rapidly by apoptosis dependent on the Bcl-2 related proteins, Bim and Bax or Bak. The details of how these proteins are activated and interact are still unclear. The crystal structure of mouse Bcl-x(L) bound to a long helical fragment of Bim indicates that the(More)
The generation of the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires homotypic membrane fusion that is mediated by the dynamin-like, membrane-bound GTPase atlastin (ATL). Here, we have determined crystal structures of the cytosolic segment of human ATL1, which give insight into the mechanism of membrane fusion. The structures reveal a GTPase(More)
The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and(More)
High in normal (HIN)-1 is a secreted protein highly expressed in normal breast epithelium and down-regulated in breast carcinomas. By searching GenBank expressed sequence tag databases, we identified HIN-2, a protein homologous to HIN-1. HIN-2 is identical with a recently identified protein called uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1). Northern blot(More)
Mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, is a major mechanism involved in mitochondrial quality control via selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Interactions between LC3 and mitophagy receptors such as FUNDC1, which harbors an LC3-interacting region (LIR), are essential for this selective process. However, how mitochondrial stresses are(More)
Previous investigations of the salinity effects on the microbial community composition have largely been limited to dynamic estuaries and coastal solar salterns. In this study, the effects of salinity and mineralogy on microbial community composition was studied by using a 900-cm sediment core collected from a stable, inland hypersaline lake, Lake Chaka, on(More)
Maternal effect genes play essential roles in early embryonic development. However, the mechanisms by which maternal effect genes regulate mammalian early embryonic development remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that is composed of at least four proteins encoded by Mater, Floped, Tle6 and Filia and is(More)
Apoptosis in activated T cells in vivo requires the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim. We show here that, despite its ability to bind LC8, a component of the microtubule dynein motor complex, most of the Bim in both healthy and apoptotic T cells is associated with mitochondria, not microtubules. In healthy resting T cells Bim is bound to the(More)
We have solved the crystal structure of the MHCII molecule, IA(b), containing an antigenic variant of the major IA(b)-binding peptide derived from the MHCII IEalpha chain. The four MHC pockets at p1, p4, p6, and p9 that usually bind peptide side chains are largely empty because of alanines in the peptide at these positions. The complex is nevertheless very(More)
The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs, and eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of viral RNAs to mimic cellular mRNA structure, which is important for RNA stability, protein translation and viral immune escape. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes two S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase) which(More)