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The stacking of Golgi cisternae involves GRASP65 and GRASP55. The oligomerization of the N-terminal GRASP domain of these proteins, which consists of two tandem PDZ domains, is required to tether the Golgi membranes. However, the molecular basis for GRASP assembly is unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the GRASP domain of GRASP65 and(More)
The introduction of antigen into animals causes antigen-specific T cells to divide and then die. Activated T cell death requires either of the death effector molecules, Bak or Bax. When T cells die, Bak and Bax change their conformations, a phenomenon that is thought to be required for Bak or Bax to drive cell death. Here we show that Bak changes(More)
The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs, and eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of viral RNAs to mimic cellular mRNA structure, which is important for RNA stability, protein translation and viral immune escape. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes two S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase) which(More)
The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus of the Retrovirus family, which causes persistent infection in horses often characterized by recurrent episodes of high fever. It has a similar morphology and life cycle to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Its transmembrane glycoprotein, gp45 (analogous to gp41 in HIV), mediates membrane(More)
The huge consumption of iron ores in China has attracted much attention to utilizing low grade complex iron resources, such as high-aluminum hematite-limonite ore, which is a refractory resource and difficult to upgrade by traditional physical concentration processes due to the superfine size and close dissemination of iron minerals with gangue minerals. An(More)
Progressive tissue fibrosis is a cause of major morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis is an epithelial-mesenchymal disorder in which TGF-β1 plays a central role in pathogenesis. Here we show that follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) differentially regulates TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, leading to epithelial injury and fibroblast activation.(More)
FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N), which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed(More)
The rising antibiotic resistance of bacteria imposes a severe threat on human health. Inhibition of bacterial virulence is an alternative approach to develop new antimicrobials. Molecules targeting antibiotic resistant enzymes have been used in combination with cognate antibiotics. It might be ideal that a molecule can simultaneously suppress virulence(More)
The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular(More)
Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa) and different treatment times (once and twice) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO). The polarized light microscopy (PLM), texture(More)