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RNA-binding proteins are key regulators of gene expression, yet only a small fraction have been functionally characterized. Here we report a systematic analysis of the RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins, encompassing 205 distinct genes from 24 diverse eukaryotes. The sequence specificities of RNA-binding proteins display deep evolutionary(More)
This paper proposes a general framework to effectively estimate the unknown timing and channel parameters, as well as design efficient timing resynchronization algorithms for asynchronous amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative communication systems. In order to obtain reliable timing and channel parameters, a least squares (LS) estimator is proposed for(More)
Over the course of several decades after their introduction, power systems merged into large interconnected grids to introduce redundancy and to leverage on a wider pool of generation resources and reserves. As the system grew in size and complexity, a cyberphysical infrastructure was progressively developed to manage it. Traditionally, general-purpose(More)
BACKGROUND Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.]) ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic(More)
When search is against structured documents, it is beneficial to extract information from user queries in a format that is consistent with the backend data structure. As one step toward this goal, we study the problem of query tagging which is to assign each query term to a pre-defined category. Our problem could be approached by learning a conditional(More)
Virtual evidence (VE), first introduced by (Pearl, 1988), provides a convenient way of incorporating prior knowledge into Bayesian networks. This work generalizes the use of VE to undirected graph-ical models and, in particular, to conditional random fields (CRFs). We show that VE can be naturally encoded into a CRF model as potential functions. More(More)
In the retina, presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that shape directionally selective (DS) responses in output ganglion cells are well established. However, the nature of inhibition-independent forms of directional selectivity remains poorly defined. Here, we describe a genetically specified set of ON-OFF DS ganglion cells (DSGCs) that code anterior motion.(More)
Determining the semantic intent of web queries not only involves identifying their semantic class, which is a primary focus of previous works, but also understanding their semantic structure. In this work, we formally define the semantic structure of noun phrase queries as comprised of intent heads and intent modifiers. We present methods that automatically(More)
This work investigates the use of acoustic data to improve grapheme-to-phoneme conversion for name recognition. We introduce a joint model of acoustics and graphonemes, and present two approaches, maximum likelihood training and dis-criminative training, in adapting graphoneme model parameters. Experiments on a large-scale voice-dialing system show that the(More)