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Oxysterol binding proteins (OSBPs) comprise a large conserved family of proteins in eukaryotes. Their ubiquity notwithstanding, the functional activities of these proteins remain unknown. Kes1p, one of seven members of the yeast OSBP family, negatively regulates Golgi complex secretory functions that are dependent on the action of the major yeast(More)
Mapping multiple QTL is a typical problem of variable selection in an oversaturated model because the potential number of QTL can be substantially larger than the sample size. Currently, model selection is still the most effective approach to mapping multiple QTL, although further research is needed. An alternative approach to analyzing an oversaturated(More)
Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) is an ecologically and economically important species mainly grown in northeastern China, Japan and Europe. However, erratic flowering and poor germplasm resources caused by high embryo abortion rates have hampered breeding of Larix species. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an effective tool for the production of L. leptolepis(More)
Our understanding of how mesodermal tissue is formed has been limited by the absence of specific and reliable markers of early mesoderm commitment. We report that mesoderm commitment from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is initiated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by gene expression profiling and by reciprocal changes in expression(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential regulators of biological processes. Somatic embryogenesis is one of the most important techniques for gymnosperm-breeding programs, but there is little understanding of its underlying mechanism. To investigate the roles of miRNAs during somatic embryogenesis in larch, we constructed a small RNA library from(More)
Marrow mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent progenitors that can differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat cells. Wnt signaling has been implicated in regulating osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we analyzed the gene expression profile of mesenchymal stem cells that were stimulated with Wnt3A. Among the 220 genes whose(More)
Osteoblast lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is a well regulated but poorly understood process. Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt signaling are implicated in regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here we analyzed the expression profiles of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with Wnt3A and osteogenic(More)
Bone breaking strength is an ultimate measurement of the risk of fracture. For a practical reason, bone mineral density (BMD) has been commonly used for predicting the risk instead. To identify genetic loci influencing femur-breaking strength (FBS), which was measured by three-point bending using an Instron DynaMight Low-Force Testing System, the(More)
Self-incompatibility is widespread in the grasses and it is proposed that the grasses share a common incompatibility mechanism that is distinct from those operating in the dicotyledonous species studied in great detail. Where good genetic data are available, all grass species appear to have an incompatibility mechanism controlled by two unlinked loci, S and(More)
Somatic embryogenesis involves complex molecular signaling pathways. Deregulation of these signaling pathways can transform the embryogenic callus to non-embryogenic callus. To investigate the miRNA regulation underlying this detrimental transformation in Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis), we compared miRNA expression profiles between embryogenic and(More)