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Purpose: A variety of cancers, including malignant gliomas, overexpress transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which helps tumors evade effective immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibition of CD8 + CTLs and enhancing the generation of regulatory T (T reg) cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-β would improve the(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence.(More)
A variety of cancers, including malignant gliomas, show aberrant activation of STAT3, which plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of antitumor immunity. We hypothesized that inhibition of STAT3 signals would improve the efficacy of T cell adoptive transfer therapy by reversal of STAT3-induced immunosuppression in a murine GL261 intracranial glioma(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligands serve as natural inducers of pro-inflammatory cytokines capable of promoting Type-1 adaptive immunity, and TLR3 is abundantly expressed by cells within the central nervous system (CNS). To improve the efficacy of vaccine strategies directed against CNS tumors, we evaluated whether administration of a TLR3 ligand,(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and facilitate tumor growth. Precursors for these immune cell populations migrate to the tumor site in response to tumor secretion of chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which was originally purified and(More)
The development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for central nervous system (CNS) tumors requires a firm understanding of factors regulating the trafficking of tumor antigen– specific CTLs into CNS tumor lesions. Using C57BL/6 mice bearing intracranial (i.c.) ovalbumin-transfected melanoma (M05), we evaluated the efficacy and tumor homing of i.v.(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke, caused by carotid plaque rupture, is a major cause of death in the United States. Whereas vulnerable human plaques have higher Fc receptor (FcγR) expression than their stable counterparts, how FcγR expression impacts plaque histology is unknown. We investigated the role of FcγRIIb in carotid plaque development and stability in(More)
OBJECT To investigate the effect of dendritic cells(DC) pulsed with apoptotic tumor cells for treatment of intracranial gliomas in rats. METHODS C6 glioma cells were injected into brain of Wistar rats under stereotactic monitor to establish an animal model of glioma. The precursors of DCs were isolated from bone marrow of rats, stimulated in vitro with(More)
Recent studies showed loss of CD36 or scavenger receptor-AI/II (SR-A) does not ameliorate atherosclerosis in a hyperlipidemic mouse model, suggesting receptors other than CD36 and SR-A may also contribute to atherosclerosis. In this report, we show that apolipoprotein E (apoE)-CD16 double knockout (DKO; apoE-CD16 DKO) mice have reduced atherosclerotic(More)