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The development of effective immunotherapy strategies for glioma requires adequate understanding of the unique immunological microenvironment in the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS tumors. Although the CNS is often considered to be an immunologically privileged site and poses unique challenges for the delivery of effector cells and molecules, recent(More)
PURPOSE A variety of cancers, including malignant gliomas, overexpress transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), which helps tumors evade effective immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibition of CD8(+) CTLs and enhancing the generation of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-beta would improve(More)
The RNase III endonuclease Dicer plays a key role in generation of microRNAs (miRs). We hypothesized that Dicer regulates cancer cell susceptibility to immune surveillance through miR processing. Indeed, Dicer disruption up-regulated intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and enhanced the susceptibility of tumor cells to antigen-specific lysis by(More)
Purpose: A variety of cancers, including malignant gliomas, overexpress transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which helps tumors evade effective immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibition of CD8 + CTLs and enhancing the generation of regulatory T (T reg) cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of TGF-β would improve the(More)
T cell dysfunction significantly increases susceptibility to infections and organ failure after trauma or surgery (physical injury). This coincides with a persistent drop in arginine availability, a necessary amino acid for normal T cell function. Recent data led to the identification of a novel mechanism of T cell suppression caused by the depletion of(More)
BACKGROUND Arginine metabolism and availability after surgery or trauma (ST) is an important modulator of immune responses. Arginine levels are significantly depleted in human trauma patients. Diets containing arginine administered to surgery patients have restored immune function. We hypothesized an arginase-dependent depletion of arginine in a murine(More)
Restricted and high-level expression of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13Ralpha2) in a majority of human malignant gliomas makes this protein an attractive vaccine target. We have previously described the identification of the IL-13Ralpha2(345-353) peptide as a human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted CTL epitope. However, as it remains unclear(More)
A variety of cancers, including malignant gliomas, show aberrant activation of STAT3, which plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of antitumor immunity. We hypothesized that inhibition of STAT3 signals would improve the efficacy of T cell adoptive transfer therapy by reversal of STAT3-induced immunosuppression in a murine GL261 intracranial glioma(More)
The development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for central nervous system (CNS) tumors requires a firm understanding of factors regulating the trafficking of tumor antigen-specific CTLs into CNS tumor lesions. Using C57BL/6 mice bearing intracranial (i.c.) ovalbumin-transfected melanoma (M05), we evaluated the efficacy and tumor homing of i.v.(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence.(More)